To understand the updated Lagrangian formulation and nonlinear finite elements of solids, we have to know continuum mechanics. A brief introduction to continuum mechanics is given in the following. If you find this handout difficult to follow, please read Chapter 2 from Belytschko's book and Chapter 9 from Reddy's book. You should also read an introductory text on continuum mechanics such as Nonlinear continuum mechanics for finite element analysis by Bonet and Wood.

Let the undeformed (or reference) configuration of the body be $\Omega _{0}$ and let the undeformed boundary be $\Gamma _{0}$. Let the deformed (or current) configuration be $\Omega$ with boundary $\Gamma$. Let ${\boldsymbol {\varphi }}(\mathbf {X} ,t)$ be the motion that takes the body from the reference to the current configuration (see Figure 1).

The velocity is the material time derivative of the motion (i.e., the time derivative with $\mathbf {X}$ held constant). This type of derivative is also called the total derivative.