New Zealand Pilot License/Human Factors/Commercial

Human Factors - General

34.2 Airmanship, Professionalism and Responsibility

34.2.2 Define professionalism.

34.2.4 Distinguish between piloting for personal reasons and for hire or reward.

34.2.6 List the people to whom a pilot is responsible in carrying out his or her duties.

34.2.8 Describe key features of good and safe airmanship.

34.2.10 List the common causes of fatal accidents for commercial pilots in New Zealand.

34.2.12 Describe the current New Zealand accident rates in comparison with other foremost aviation nations in specific categories.

34.2.14 State the approximate proportion of aircraft accidents and incidents commonly attributed to human performance errors.

34.4 Human Factors Models and Programmes

34.4.2 Define human factors as used in a professional aviation context.

34.4.4 Describe the fundamentals of the SHEL Model in relation to the interaction of humans with other humans, hardware, information sources and the environment.

34.4.6 Explain the role of human factors programmes in promoting aviation safety in flight operations in commercial aviation.

34.4.8 Describe the importance of an effective human factors programme in a commercial operation. Physiology and the Effects of Flight

34.6 The Atmosphere

34.6.2 State the gases that make up the atmosphere.

34.6.4 State the percentage of each gas in the atmosphere.

34.6.6 Describe the variation of pressure as altitude increases.

34.6.8 Explain how the partial pressure of oxygen changes as altitude increases.

34.8 Circulation and Respiratory Systems

34.8.2 Describe the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system.

34.8.4 Describe the anatomy and physiology of the circulatory system.

34.8.6 Describe the role of the lungs in oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer. Page 138 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 137 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

34.10 Hypoxia

34.10.2 Define hypoxia.

34.10.4 State the partial pressure of oxygen both inside and outside the lungs at sea level.

34.10.6 Explain the mechanical effect of the partial pressure of oxygen on oxygen transfer in the lungs.

34.10.8 Explain the causes of hypoxia.

34.10.10 Describe the primary physiological and behavioural consequences of hypoxia for flight crew and passengers.

34.10.12 Describe the common symptoms of hypoxia.

34.10.14 Explain the reasons hypoxia symptoms are difficult to detect.

34.10.16 Explain the relationship between hypoxic onset and both vision and cognitive performance.

34.10.18 Describe how hypoxia can be prevented.

34.10.20 List the main factors influencing variation in hypoxia onset (tolerance) between individuals.

34.10.22 State the factors that affect the likelihood of suffering from hypoxia.

34.10.24 Describe how hypoxia can be treated.

34.10.26 Define the concept of ‘time of useful consciousness’.

34.10.28 State the approximate time of useful consciousness at:

(a) 18,000ft;

(b) 25,000ft;

(c) 35,000ft.

34.10.30 Explain oxygen paradox.

34.12 Hyperventilation

34.12.2 Define hyperventilation.

34.12.4 Explain the causes of hyperventilation.

34.12.6 Describe the symptoms of hyperventilation.

34.12.8 Describe how hyperventilation can be treated.

34.12.10 Describe the differences between hyperventilation and hypoxia. Page 139 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 138 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

34.14 Entrapped Gasses

34.14.2 Define barotrauma.

34.14.4 Explain the causes of barotrauma.

34.14.6 Describe the symptoms of barotrauma.

34.14.8 Describe the effects of barotrauma on the various parts of the body.

34.14.10 Describe how barotrauma can be prevented.

34.14.12 Describe how barotrauma can be treated.

34.16 Decompression Sickness

34.16.2 Define decompression sickness.

34.16.4 Explain the causes of decompression sickness.

34.16.6 Describe the symptoms of decompression sickness.

34.16.8 Explain how decompression sickness can be prevented.

34.16.10 Describe how decompression sickness can be treated.

34.16.12 Explain the effects of an explosive decompression on the body.

34.16.14 Explain the actions that must be taken to deal with an explosive decompression.

34.16.16 Explain the dangers of flying after diving.

34.16.18 State the approximate required times between diving at various depths and flying.

34.18 Vision and Visual Perception

34.18.2 Describe the anatomy and physiology of the eye.

34.18.4 Identify the following eye structure components:

(a) lens;

(b) cornea;

(c) retina;

(d) fovea;

(e) optic nerve disc;

(f) cone cells;

(g) rod cells.

34.18.6 Distinguish between rod and cone cell functions and distribution in the retina. Page 140 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 139 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

34.18.8 Describe the limitations of the eye in terms of:

(a) the ability to discern objects at night;

(b) the ability to discern objects in daylight, including wires and other aircraft;

(c) poor lighting;

(d) glare;

(e) lack of contrast;

(f) the blind spot;

(g) colour perception;

(h) empty field myopia.

34.18.10 Explain the process of dark adaptation.

34.18.12 State the normal time for full night vision adaptation.

34.18.14 Identify precautionary actions to protect night vision adaptation.

34.18.16 Describe methods of cockpit/flight deck lighting and problems associated with each.

34.18.18 Describe:

(a) long sightedness;

(b) short sightedness;

(c) presbyopia;

(d) astigmatism.

34.18.20 Describe the requirements for using corrective lenses.

34.18.22 Describe the factors associated with the selection of suitable sunglasses for flying.

34.18.24 Describe the effects of hypoxia on vision.

34.18.26 Describe the visual system resting state focus and its effects on object detection.

34.18.28 Explain effective visual search techniques.

34.18.30 Explain the see and avoid method of avoiding mid-air collisions.

34.18.32 Explain the use of visual cues during landing.

34.18.34 Explain the following visual illusions, and describe methods of avoiding and/or coping with them:

(a) autokinesis;

(b) stroboscopic illumination illusion/flicker vertigo; Page 141 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 140 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

(c) the break-off phenomenon;

(d) sector whiteout;

(e) the black hole phenomenon.

34.18.36 Describe conditions which can lead to the creation of a false horizon.

34.18.38 Explain the effect of a false horizon on visual perception.

34.18.40 Explain relative motion.

34.18.42 Explain the effect of fog, haze, and/or dust on visual perception.

34.18.44 Describe the optical characteristics of the windshield.

34.18.46 Explain the effect of rain on the windshield.

34.18.48 Explain the effect of sloping terrain on visual perception.

34.18.50 Explain the effect of the following factors on visual perception during an approach:

(a) steep/shallow approach angles;

(b) length, width and texture of the runway; and,

(c) the intensity of the approach lights.

34.20 Hearing and Balance

34.20.2 Describe the anatomy and physiology of the ear.

34.20.4 Describe the effect of prolonged noise exposure on hearing.

34.20.6 Describe methods of protecting hearing.

34.20.8 Specify the various levels of noise in decibels at which various grades of hearing protection are required.

34.20.10 Specify noise levels at which hearing damage may occur.

34.20.12 Describe what is meant by the action threshold for hearing protection.

34.20.14 Explain the effects of age induced hearing loss (presbycusis).

34.20.16 Explain the effects of pressure changes on the middle ear and eustachian tubes.

34.20.18 Explain the effects of colds; hay fever; and/or allergies on the sinuses and eustachian tubes.

34.22 Spatial Orientation

34.22.2 Define spatial orientation.

34.22.4 Define disorientation.

34.22.6 Outline the anatomy and physiology of the motion, orientation and gravitational Page 142 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 141 Sub Topic Syllabus Item sensory organs, including:

(a) the semi-circular canals;

(b) vestibular sac/tubes.

34.22.8 Explain the interconnection between the senses of vision and orientation in maintaining an accurate sense spatial orientation.

34.22.10 Explain the body’s limitations in maintaining spatial orientation when vision is adversely affected.

34.22.12 Describe and explain the effects of the following spatial illusions:

(a) the leans and sub-threshold stimulation;

(b) somatogravic illusion;

(c) somatogyral illusion;

(d) cross coupled turning (coriolis effect);

(e) pressure vertigo.

34.22.14 Describe the factors which affect an individual’s susceptibility to disorientation.

34.22.16 Explain how disorientation can be prevented.

34.24 Gravitational Forces

34.24.2 Explain the effects of positive and negative accelerations on:

(a) the circulatory system;

(b) vision;

(c) consciousness.

34.24.4 Explain the causes and symptoms of:

(a) black-out;

(b) red-out;

(c) G-LOC (gravity induced loss of consciousness).

34.26 Motion Sickness

34.26.2 Explain the causes of motion sickness.

34.26.4 Describe how motion sickness can be prevented.

34.26.6 Describe how motion sickness can be treated.

34.28 Flight Anxiety

34.28.2 Explain the causes of flight anxiety. Page 143 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 142 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

34.28.4 Recognise the signs of flight anxiety in passengers.

34.28.6 Describe how flight anxiety can be prevented.

34.28.8 Describe how flight anxiety can be treated. Flying and Health

34.30 Fitness to Fly

34.30.2 Describe the term fitness to fly.

34.30.4 Explain the CAANZ system of assessing medical fitness, with regard to:

(a) Medical Examiners Grade 1 and Grade 2;

(b) reasons for medical examinations;

(c) means of obtaining medical examinations;

(d) frequency of medical examinations;

(e) responsibilities of pilots towards medical fitness for flight.

34.30.6 Identify symptoms and circumstances that would lead you to consult your aviation medical examiner prior to further flight.

34.30.8 Describe the IMSAFE method of assessing fitness for flight.

34.30.10 Describe the problems associated with pregnancy and flying.

34.30.12 State when a pregnant pilot must stop flying.

34.30.14 Describe the following factors, including their effects on pilot performance and methods by which they may be minimised/managed:

(a) arterial disease;

(b) blood pressure;

(c) diet;

(d) exercise;

(e) obesity;

(f) smoking;

(g) respiratory tract infection/allergies (including colds, sinus, hay fever, influenza, asthma);

(h) food poisoning and gastroenteritis;

(i) neurological factors (including fits/epilepsy, brain injury, fainting, headaches, migraines);

(j) emotional factors (including depression and anxiety); Page 144 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 143 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

(k) physical injuries;

(l) dehydration;

(m) hypoglycaemia.

34.30.16 Describe the symptoms of gastrointestinal problems.

34.30.18 Identify the primary causes of food poisoning.

34.32 Alcohol and Drugs

34.32.2 Explain the effects of alcohol on pilot performance.

34.32.4 State the recommended time periods between the consumption of alcohol and flying.

34.32.6 Describe how individuals differ in the effect of alcohol consumption.

34.32.8 Explain the effects of drugs on pilot performance.

34.32.10 State where information can be obtained about the suitability of over the counter and prescription medication for flying.

34.32.12 Explain why illegal/recreational drugs are unacceptable for pilots.

34.34 Blood Donation

34.34.2 Describe the effect on the body of donating blood.

34.34.4 State the recommended time period between donating blood and flying.

34.36 Environmental Hazards

34.36.2 Describe the symptoms, effects and immediate treatments for the following hazards present in the aviation environment:

(a) carbon monoxide;

(b) fuel;

(c) chemical sprays;

(d) lubricating oils;

(e) hydraulic fluids;

(f) compressed gases;

(g) liquid oxygen;

(h) de-icing fluids;

(i) fire extinguishing agents;

(j) fire accelerant substances.

34.36.4 State the source of carbon monoxide poisoning in general aviation aircraft. Page 145 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 144 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

34.36.6 Describe reliable methods for the detection of carbon monoxide.

34.36.8 Describe methods of eliminating carbon monoxide from the cockpit.

34.36.10 Identify the negative effects of vibration and resonance.

34.36.12 Outline ways that vibration can be controlled.

34.38 Stress Management

34.38.2 Define stress.

34.38.4 Describe a simple model of stress.

34.38.6 Define arousal.

34.38.8 Explain the relationship between stress and arousal.

34.38.10 Identify and give examples of physical, environmental, task-related, organisational and psychological stressors.

34.38.12 Describe the following environmental stressors:

(a) heat;

(b) cold;

(c) noise;

(d) vibration; and,

(e) humidity.

34.38.14 Explain methods of identifying stress.

34.38.16 Explain the difference between acute and chronic stress.

34.38.18 Describe the physiological and psychological effects of stress.

34.38.20 Describe the effects of stress on attention, motivation and performance.

34.38.22 Describe the factors that improve personal stress tolerance.

34.38.24 Describe the relationship between stress and fatigue.

34.38.26 Explain methods of managing stress.

34.40 Sleep and Fatigue (Alertness management)

34.40.2 Describe the stages of sleep.

34.40.4 Describe the mechanism of sleep regulation.

34.40.6 Describe problems associated with sleep at abnormal times of the day.

34.40.8 Explain what is meant by sleep debt.

34.40.10 Explain how individuals differ in their requirement for sleep. Page 146 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 145 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

34.40.12 Explain the effects of the following alertness management techniques:

(a) napping;

(b) caffeine consumption;

(c) alcohol consumption;

(d) taking sedatives;

(e) taking stimulants other than caffeine.

34.40.14 Describe sleep disorders and their effects on pilot performance.

34.40.16 Define fatigue.

34.40.18 Describe the symptoms of fatigue.

34.40.20 Explain the causes of fatigue and its effect on pilot performance.

34.40.22 Explain the difference between acute and chronic fatigue.

34.40.24 Describe methods of managing fatigue.

34.40.26 Define the following terms:

(a) biological clock;

(b) circadian rhythm;

(c) circadian dysrhythmia;

(d) desynchronisation;

(e) zeitgeber.

34.40.28 Describe the central human physiological processes underlying circadian rhythm processes.

34.40.30 Explain how circadian rhythms affect pilot performance.

34.40.32 Explain the effects of circadian dysrhythmia and methods of managing these.

34.40.34 Describe the impact of shiftwork on a pilot’s performance.

34.40.36 Describe how the biological effects of shiftwork can be minimised.

34.40.38 Identify the principles of good rostering practice.

34.42 Ageing

34.42.2 Describe the effects of the normal processes of human ageing on:

(a) the sensitivity and acuity of the sensory systems;

(b) muscular strength;

(c) resilience and reaction times; Page 147 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 146 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

(d) sleep/wakefulness patterns;

(e) cognitive or mental functioning;

(f) the acquisition of new information;

(g) the retention and retrieval of stored information in memory;

(h) the rate of information processing;

(i) insight and self awareness of your individual capabilities.

34.42.4 Describe methods by which age-related changes in memory and speed of information processing can be moderated by older pilots.

34.42.6 Describe what changes would indicate early dementia or age related cognitive impairment in another pilot. Aviation Psychology

34.44 Information Processing

34.44.2 Identify the human sensors pilots depend on for information acquisition.

34.44.4 Describe the brain’s role in registering sensations, processing sensory information, storing information and controlling actions.

34.44.6 Describe a basic model of information processing, including the concepts of:

(a) attention;

(b) divided attention;

(c) selective attention;

(d) attention getting stimulus;

(e) sensory threshold;

(f) sensitivity;

(g) adaptation;

(h) habitation.

34.44.8 Describe the following types of memory:

(a) peripheral/sensory memory;

(b) short term/working memory;

(c) long term memory;

(d) motor/skills memory;

(e) semantic memory;

(f) episodic memory. Page 148 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 147 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

34.44.10 Describe the limitations and failures of memory.

34.44.12 Explain the following methods of retaining and retrieving information from memory:

(a) chunking;

(b) mnemonics;

(c) associations (verbal and visual);

(d) checklists;

(e) aide memoirs.

34.44.14 Explain the concept of mental workload.

34.44.16 Explain the concept of overload.

34.44.18 Describe methods of managing potential overload.

34.44.20 Describe and compare skill, rule and knowledge based behaviours.

34.44.22 Describe the process of acquiring a skill.

34.44.24 Describe failures of skill, rule and knowledge based behaviours.

34.44.26 Explain confirmation bias.

34.44.28 Define perception.

34.44.30 Describe the effect of the following on perception:

(a) expectation;

(b) experience.

34.44.32 Describe the formation of mental models.

34.44.34 Describe the special perceptual problems associated with:

(a) snow operations;

(b) water operations;

(c) agricultural and low flying operations.

34.46 Situational Awareness

34.46.2 Define situational awareness.

34.46.4 Explain the importance of situational awareness on difference phases of flight.

34.46.6 Describe strategies to maintain and enhance situational awareness.

34.46.8 Explain the relationship between crew resource management (CRM) and the building of situational awareness amongst flight-crew. Page 149 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 148 Sub Topic Syllabus Item

34.48 Judgement and Decision Making

34.48.2 Distinguish between skills, knowledge and attitudes.

34.48.4 Describe hazardous attitudes.

34.48.6 Describe methods of countering the hazardous attitudes.

34.48.8 Describe the error/poor judgement chain.

34.48.10 Explain clues or red flags that can assist in identifying the error/poor judgement chain.

34.48.12 Identify risk assessment techniques.

34.48.14 Identify risk levels that compromise safety.

34.48.16 Outline the general concepts behind decision making.

34.48.18 Describe methods of enhancing decision making skills.

34.48.20 Identify common decision-making models used in aviation training (DECIDE, SADIE etc) and explain their application.

34.48.22 Identify specific factors that influence the decision making process.

34.48.24 Explain the setting of personal limitations and decision points.

34.48.26 Outline the dangers of get-home-itis.

34.48.28 Identify situations where time pressure compromises safety or increases risk levels.

34.50 Social Psychology and Flight Deck Management

34.50.2 Identify the broad characteristics of personality and distinguish individual differences.

34.50.4 Define cognitive dissonance.

34.50.6 Explain the concept of crew resource management (CRM).

34.50.8 Identify crew resource management elements of accident reviews.

34.50.10 Describe methods of maximising crew resource management.

34.50.12 Define teamwork and team membership.

34.50.14 Identify the factors that affect team performance.

34.50.16 Describe how effective teams or team working can reduce errors.

34.50.18 Describe group decision making.

34.50.20 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.