New Zealand Pilot License/Air Navigation and Flight Planning

Fundamentals of Air Navigation

Form of the EarthEdit

Describe the general shape of the earth.

Define and identify, on a diagram of the earth, and explain the meaning of the following:

  • axis and direction of rotation;
  • geographic poles;
  • great circles;
  • rhumb lines

  • the equator
  • parallels of latitude;
  • meridians of longitude;
  • position.

Direction on the EarthEdit

Describe the 360 degree method of indicating direction

Describe the earth's magnetic field


  • Magnetic pole
  • true north
  • magnetic north
  • the cardinal directions of the earth;
  • the quadrantal directions of the earth
  • true direcetion
  • magnetic direction
  • compass direction
  • magnetic variation
  • an isogonal
  • comapss deviation
  • true bearing
  • magnetic bearing
  • compass bearing
  • relative bearing

Convert between true, magnetic and compass directions

Convert between relative, true, magnetic and compass bearings

Plot and measure tracks and bearings (+- 1 degree) on a NZ Aeronautical Chart

Distance on the EarthEdit

Define a:

  • statute mile
  • nautical mile (nm)
  • kilometre

Calculate the conversion between a statute mile, a nautical mile and a kilometre

State the number of feet and meters in a statute mile, a nautical mile and a kilometre

Measure distances (+- 1 nm) on a NZ Aeronautical Chart



  • a knot
  • groundspeed (GS)
  • indicated airspeed (IAS)
  • calibrated airspeed (CAS)
  • true airspeed (TAS)

Position ReferencingEdit

Define a:

  • ground position
  • air position
  • DR position
  • pinpoint
  • fix

Describe and apply the following position reference methods:

  • place name
  • bearing and distance
  • latitude and longitude

Calculate the relative bearing of a position from an aircraft

Calculate the bearing of an aircraft from a position



  • height
  • altitude
  • mean sea level (MSL)
  • ground level
  • elevation
  • pressure altitude (PA)
  • QNH

Explain the effect of a change in mean sea level air pressure on the altimeter reading of a transiting aircraft

State and apply the altimeter setting rules in New Zealand

Explain and apply the table of cruising levels

Principles and TerminologyEdit


  • true and magnetic track / course
  • wind velocity (W/V)
  • *head/tail wind
  • *crosswind
  • true heading
  • * magnetic heading
  • *compass heading
  • *drift (planned and actual)
  • *track / course made good (TMG / CMG)
  • port
  • starboard
  • dead (deduced) reckoning
  • *track error (TE)
  • *closing angle (CA)
  • *estimated time of departure (ETD)
  • actual time of departure (ATD)
  • *estimated elapsed time (EET)
  • *estimated time of arival (ETA)
  • actual time of arrival (ATA)

Explain and apply the 1:60 rule

Calculate the values marked with an * above


Describe the six figure systems of indicating date/time groups


  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
  • Standard Time (NZST)
  • Daylight Time (NZDT)

Calculate ETD and ETA in UTC given planned flight time details and reference time in NZST and/or NZDT

Triangle of VelocitiesEdit

Identify and label the three vectors of the triangle of velocities

Using a navigation computer, solve triangle of velocity problems (given four of the six variables):

  • heading and track (+-2 degrees)
  • TAS and GS (+-2kts)
  • wind velocity (+- 3 degrees +- 3 kts)
  • drift (+-1 degree)

aeronautical Maps and Charts

Properties and PrinciplesEdit

Explain the difficulties associated with representating a spherical shape on a flat surface

Define scale

List the uses of

  • a NZ Aeronautical Chart
  • the Aerodrome Chart

Map ReadingEdit

Interpret the features and symbols of a NZ Aeronautical Chart

Describe the method of indicating relief on a NZ Aeronautical Chart

Interpret information from Aerodrome Charts and Operational Data pages in the AIPNZ Volume 4

Circular Slide Rule


Derive TAS, given IAS, pressure altitude and air temperature in degrees Celcius.

Solve mathematical equations:

  • multiplication (+-2%)
  • division (+-2%)
  • proportion (+-2%)

Derive time, speed, or distance, given two factors

Calculate time and distance to climb, given groundspeed, rate of climb and height to climb

Calculate rate of descent required to achieve a given heaight loss over time

Calculate fuel consumption, given the burn rate and time

Calculate fuel burn rate given the consumption and time

Calculate fuel endurance, given the fuel quantity and burn rate

Convert between:

  • degrees Fahernheit and Celsius
  • nautical miles (nm), statute miles and kilometres (+-1%)
  • metres and feet (+-2%)
  • pounds and kilograms
  • litres, imperial and US gallons
  • volume of fuel (in litres, imperial or US gallons) and a volume of fuel (in pounds or kilograms)

Mental Dead (Deduced) Reckoning

In-flight RevisionsEdit

Mentally estimate:

  • a heading change, using the 1:60 rule (+-2%)
  • a heading change, using driftlines (+-2%)
  • a heading to make good a reciprocal track
  • an ETA change, using proportional division
  • the effect of inaccuracies in heading speed and height
  • navigation in conditions of limited visiblity

Flight Planning

Route SelectionEdit

List the factors to be considered when selecting a VFR cross-country navigation route

List the factors to be considered when selecting altitudes at which to fly in the cruise

List the factors to be considered when selecting alternate routes and destination alternates

Map PreparationEdit

Mark the following on a map:

  • departure aerodrome, turning points, and destination aerodrome
  • tracks
  • heading change markings, either 1:60 or driftlines
  • ETA amendment markings

Fold a map in a manner appropriate for a VFR cross-country flight

Plan PreparationEdit

Cmplete a navigation log / flight plan for a VFR cross-country, including calculating the following values:

  • TAS's
  • tracks
  • estimated wind velocities
  • headings
  • grounspeeds
  • distances
  • EETs
  • ETAs

Fuel PlanningEdit

Derive, from an Aircraft Flight Manual, the fuel consumption rate for a given leg

Calculate the expected fuel burn on a given leg

Calculate the minimum fuel required on a given VFR cross-country flight

Calculate the legal minimum fuel reserves required on a VFR cross-country flight

Calculate the maximum holding time available for a given leg

Calculate the latest time of departure for a given VFR cross-country flight or a given leg

Load PlanningEdit

Calculate the take-off weight of a given aircraft on a VFR flight

Calculate the landing weight of a given aircraft on a VFR fight

Calculate the position of the Centre of Gravity of a given aircraft on a VFR flight

Calculate the available payload of a given aircraft on a VFR flight

Visual Navigation Procedures

Flight ManagementEdit

Describe the techniques and procedures for:

  • setting heading
  • cruise routine / activity cycle
  • maintaining a flight log
  • turning points
  • approaching / rejoining at a destination aerodrome

Describe the techniques for map reading in flight

Describe techniques for:

  • pinpointing
  • changing heading to make good the desired track
  • changing heading to make good next turning point or destination
  • amending ETA

Estimate and calculate a heading to make good a reciprocal track

Estimate and calculate and aircraft's position given bearing and distance from an identified ground position

Special ProceduresEdit

Describe the techniques and procedures for:

  • re-establishing position if lost
  • diverting from the pre-planned route
  • navigating at low level when forced to do so by bad weather