Motivation and emotion/Tutorials/Learned optimism
Tutorial 06: Learned optimism
|Resource type: this resource contains a tutorial or tutorial notes.|
This is the sixth tutorial for the motivation and emotion unit of study.
This tutorial is complete for 2022.
- Explores learned optimism (the opposite of learned helplessness).
- Last motivation tutorial - following tutorials focus on emotion.
This exercise explores learned optimism which relates to personal control beliefs in Chapter 10 of Reeve (2018) and the mindsets, control, and the self lecture. Whilst the textbook and lecture focus on learned helplessness, here attention is turned to learned optimism.
Define and discuss learned helplessness vs. learned optimism.
- What characterises learned helplessness?
- What characterises learned optimism?
Hardware vs. softwareEdit
A computer metaphor:
- The body and brain provide the "hardware".
- Thinking is the "software".
- Software can be reprogrammed.
- This is the view, at least, of cognitive psychology.
The learned helplessness and learned optimism concepts were developed by Martin Seligman, University of Pennsylvania. Seligman started with research about learned helplessness and has then applied this to learning optimism and positive psychology more generally. Three key books in this respect are:
- Helplessness: On depression, development, and death (Seligman, 1975)
- Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life (Seligman, 1990)
- The hope circuit: A psychologist's journal helplessness to optimism (Seligman, 2018)
Learned Optimism TestEdit
- Complete the Learned Optimism Test (48 items; 10 - 15 mins; modified from Seligman, 1991).
- "Right" answers are more optimistic; "wrong" answers are more pessimistic
- Keep your answers up on the screen; note the total
- Explain the theoretical structure - see dimensions
- View and discuss the results.
The Learned Optimism Test is structured around six dimensions, based on three types of attributions about two types of events:
- Permanence (Good and Bad)
- Pervasiveness (Good and Bad)
- Personalisation (Good and Bad)
Attributional Dimensions of Pessimism and Optimism
Explanatory Styles Based on Attributional Dimensions of Pessimism and Optimism
Time: Temporary vs. Permanent - a pessimistic view is that bad events are permanent and good events are temporary (opposite for optimism)
- PmB (Permanent Bad)
- PmG (Permanent Good)
Space: Specific vs. Universal - across situations/domains: a pessimistic view is that bad events are pervasive across situations/domains and good events are specific to a situation/domain (opposite for optimism)
- PvB (Pervasive Bad)
- PvG (Pervasive Good)
Control/causality: Internal vs. External: e.g., a pessimistic view is that bad events are internally caused and good events are externally causes (opposite for optimism)
- PsB (Personalisation Bad)
- PsG (Personalisation Good)
Assuming optimistic responses are scored positively.
- Hope (HoB) = PvB + PmB (i.e., Hope for Bad Events).
- Seligman indicates that this is the single most important score.
- Total B (Bad) = PmB + PvB + PsB
- Total G (Good) = PmG + PvG + PsG
- Overall Optimism = Total G + Total B
Would you like to become more optimistic?
If so, Seligman suggests a cognitive ABCDE solution:
How to Change Pessimistic Thinking Styles
|A||Adversity||When we encounter adversity, we react by thinking about it.|
|B||Beliefs||Our thoughts rapidly congeal into beliefs.|
|C||Consequences||These beliefs ... have consequences|
|D||Disputation||We find evidence against the negative beliefs, alternatives to our negative reasoning, and limit the implication of the beliefs. Seligman writes that "Much of the skill of dealing with setbacks ... consists of learning how to dispute your own first thoughts in reaction to a setback."|
|E||Energisation||We feel energised after we've disputed our false, negative beliefs.|
Is optimism always good?Edit
There are well established positive relationships between optimism and important life outcomes such as physical health (e.g., longevity) and psychological well-being.
But is optimism always good? For example:
- Narcissism - Believing that one is all-powerful and influential can contribute to inflated self-importance (i.e., narcissism)
- Risk-taking - Believing that one can control good outcomes (when you actually can't) can be problematic (e.g., gambling)
Despite these potential problems, the advantages of optimism are overwhelming. So much so, that the psychologically healthiest people tend to have "positive illusions", that is, somewhat unrealistically positive views, whereas "realists" are more prone to depression.
Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life. Vintage Books.
Seligman, M. E. (2018). The hope circuit: A psychologist's journey from helplessness to optimism. Penguin Random House Australia.
- Tutorial 06 recording, 2022
- Additional tutorial material
- Book chapters
- Learned helplessness (2011)
- Learned optimism (2011)
- Functionalist theory and self-tracking (Previous tutorial)
- Core emotions (Next tutorial)
- Avoiding learned helplessness and changing your explanatory style (Mackay & Mackay, 2010, artofmanliness.com, Building your resiliency: Part II)
- Learned optimism: Is Martin Seligman’s glass half full? (positivepsychology.com)