List of protosciences

This is a list of protosciences. Protosciences include new area of scientific endeavor in the process of becoming established. It can include speculative sciences. This list includes science fields and science theories presented in accordance with known evidence, and a body of associated predictions have been made according to that theory, but the predictions have not yet been tested.

Some protosciences go on to become a widely accepted part of science, such as plate tectonics which eventually became an accepted scientific model. Other protoscientific theories end up being disproven. If their followers refuse to accept the falsification of their theories, protoscience can then become regarded as pseudoscience. The falsification of the original theory sometimes leads to reformulation of the theory.

Note: Idiosyncratic theories, or theories with an extremely small base of followers or peculiar to an individual, are not encyclopedic and should not be included. Pure pseudoscience should not be included either.


Alchemy. This protoscience set the stage for modern chemistry. There were several aims in alchemy for example transforming base metals such as lead or copper into silver or gold and to discover a cure for disease and a way of extending life.

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