Introduction to telecommunications

Introduction edit

Information has a variety of meanings, from everyday talks to High Tech settings. Generally, the concept of information is closely relavant to issues of communications, control, data, instruction, knowledge, meanining, pattern, perception, and representation.

Voice, Video, and Data edit

  • Voice is practically the sound, that comes from our mouths and carried by sound waves. Sound waves can't carry it too far, so with a help of a microphone voice singals are converted to their electical equivalents, then carried by the electric wires. When the electric signal reaches destination, it is converted back to audio signal by a speaker.
  • Video is a motion picture which is a quickly-changing image.. It works the same principle as an audio transmission, yet with a different information. Video camera converts the image to an electrical signal. The electrical signal travels through the electric wires, and reaches the destination. There it is converted back to visual by a TV.

Elements of the communication systems edit

  • For humans, signal is a piece of meaningful information, yet the electrical/electronic definition of signal would be
  • A signal is a physical, and time-dependant energy used to convey information through the transmission line.
  • Source is the originator of message, also known as Transmitting End
  • Transmitting equipment
  • Receiving End
  • Receiving equipment

Signals Carry edit

  • Message - the information itself
  • Meta data - the information the electronic transmitting media can require, which is
    • messages' order
    • message's length
    • coding techniques

Signaling is a process of exchanging information on matter of the connection establishment, and managing telecom networks.

  • Signals can be analog and digital.

Block Diagram Approach edit

Fundamental Laws edit

Social Aspects edit

Signals: Analog and Digital edit

Analogue Signals edit

By definition, an analogue signal is a signal which is continuous in both time and amplitude. Sine and Cosine functions may be considered as basis of analogue signals with the variable parameters of Amplitude, Frequency, and Phase.

Discrete Time Signals edit

Digital signals edit

Gain Loss and Decibels edit

Analog Transmission edit

Baseband vs Bandpass edit

Modulation edit

Amplitude Modulation edit

Frequency Modulation edit

Bandwidth edit

Analog to Digital Transmission edit

Filtering and Spectral Analysis edit

Signals and channels edit

Digital transmission edit

Digital Data and Transmission edit

Baud Rate edit

Techniques of Transmission edit

Encoding edit

Modems edit

Digital to Analog modulation edit

Multiplexing edit

Mechanics of Digital Transission edit

Transmission Media edit


Copper-Twisted( (UTP/STP)) = (E/T Electrical Energy)

Coaxial Cable = (E/T Electrical Energy)

Optical Fiber = (E/T Light / Laser)

Air = (E/T Sound)

Free Space = (E/T Elecotro Magnatice Waves)

Networks edit

Topologies edit

Physical Layout edit

Layers edit

Physical And Logical edit

Archtecture and Characteristics edit

Network Management edit

Bibliography and Credits edit

  • NYC College of Technology, Introduction to Telecommunication course notes by professor D.K.Mynbaev, PhD
  • ASA Institute course notes to the Intro to Telecom course by Eleonora Beniaminova.