Introduction to telecommunications


Information has a variety of meanings, from everyday talks to High Tech settings. Generally, the concept of information is closely relavant to issues of communications, control, data, instruction, knowledge, meanining, pattern, perception, and representation.

Voice, Video, and DataEdit

  • Voice is practically the sound, that comes from our mouths and carried by sound waves. Sound waves can't carry it too far, so with a help of a microphone voice singals are converted to their electical equivalents, then carried by the electric wires. When the electric signal reaches destination, it is converted back to audio signal by a speaker.
  • Video is a motion picture which is a quickly-changing image.. It works the same principle as an audio transmission, yet with a different information. Video camera converts the image to an electrical signal. The electrical signal travels through the electric wires, and reaches the destination. There it is converted back to visual by a TV.

Elements of the communication systemsEdit

  • For humans, signal is a piece of meaningful information, yet the electrical/electronic definition of signal would be
  • A signal is a physical, and time-dependant energy used to convey information through the transmission line.
  • Source is the originator of message, also known as Transmitting End
  • Transmitting equipment
  • Receiving End
  • Receiving equipment

Signals CarryEdit

  • Message - the information itself
  • Meta data - the information the electronic transmitting media can require, which is
    • messages' order
    • message's length
    • coding techniques

Signaling is a process of exchanging information on matter of the connection establishment, and managing telecom networks.

  • Signals can be analog and digital.

Block Diagram ApproachEdit

Fundamental LawsEdit

Social AspectsEdit

Signals: Analog and DigitalEdit

Analogue SignalsEdit

By definition, an analogue signal is a signal which is continuous in both time and amplitude. Sine and Cosine functions may be considered as basis of analogue signals with the variable parameters of Amplitude, Frequency, and Phase.

Discrete Time SignalsEdit

Digital signalsEdit

Gain Loss and DecibelsEdit

Analog TransmissionEdit

Baseband vs BandpassEdit


Amplitude ModulationEdit

Frequency ModulationEdit


Analog to Digital TransmissionEdit

Filtering and Spectral AnalysisEdit

Signals and channelsEdit

Digital transmissionEdit

Digital Data and TransmissionEdit

Baud RateEdit

Techniques of TransmissionEdit



Digital to Analog modulationEdit


Mechanics of Digital TransissionEdit

Transmission MediaEdit


Copper-Twisted( (UTP/STP)) = (E/T Electrical Energy)

Coaxial Cable = (E/T Electrical Energy)

Optical Fiber = (E/T Light / Laser)

Air = (E/T Sound)

Free Space = (E/T Elecotro Magnatice Waves)



Physical LayoutEdit


Physical And LogicalEdit

Archtecture and CharacteristicsEdit

Network ManagementEdit

Bibliography and CreditsEdit

  • NYC Collete of Technology, Introduction to Telecommunication course notes by professor D.K.Mynbaev, PhD
  • ASA Institute course notes to the Intro to Telecom course by Eleonora Beniaminova.