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Internet Fundamentals/Introduction

Internet word cloud

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.[1] This lesson introduces fundamental Internet concepts and terms used throughout the course.

Objectives and SkillsEdit

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Understand fundamental Internet concepts and vocabulary.

ReadingsEdit

MultimediaEdit

ActivitiesEdit

  1. Complete the following tutorials:
  2. IP Addresses and Geolocation
  3. Tracing Internet Traffic

Lesson SummaryEdit

  • The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.[2]
  • The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.[3]
  • The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks.[4]
  • The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s.[5]
  • Most traditional communications media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites.[6]
  • Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators.[7]
  • The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking.[8]
  • The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies.[9]
  • Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).[10]
  • The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.[11]
  • The World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services.[12]
  • The Internet carries many network services, most prominently mobile apps such as social media apps, the World Wide Web, electronic mail, multiplayer online games, Internet telephony, and file sharing services.[13]
  • The Web is a collection of interconnected documents (web pages) and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.[14]
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.[15]
  • Common methods of Internet access by users include dial-up with a computer modem via telephone circuits, broadband over coaxial cable, fiber optics or copper wires, Wi-Fi, satellite and cellular telephone technology (3G, 4G).[16]
  • Internet resources, hardware, and software components are the target of criminal or malicious attempts to gain unauthorized control to cause interruptions, commit fraud, engage in blackmail or access private information.[17]

Key TermsEdit

cloud computing
Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand.[18]
communication protocol
A system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information.[19]
computer security
The protection of computer systems from the theft or damage to their hardware, software or information, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.[20]
copyright
A legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution.[21]
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
A style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language.[22]
database
An organized collection of data, including schemas, tables, queries, reports, views and other objects.[23]
email (electronic mail)
A method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients.[24]
graphics
Visual images or designs used to inform, illustrate, or entertain.[25]
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
The standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.[26]
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
An application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.[27]
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
A nonprofit organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces of the Internet, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.[28]
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
A professional organization with objectives for the educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunications, computer engineering and allied disciplines.[29]
information technology
The application of computers to store, study, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.[30]
intellectual property
Creations for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law.[31]
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.[32]
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
The organization that develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, and in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).[33]
Internet service provider (ISP)
An organization that provides services accessing and using the Internet.[34]
IPv4
One of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods in the Internet, and was the first version deployed for production in the ARPANET in 1983.[35]
IPv6
The most recent version of the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.[36]
Java
A general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.[37]
JavaScript
A high-level, dynamic, untyped, object-based, multi-paradigm, and interpreted programming language used alongside HTML and CSS to make webpages interactive and provide online programs.[38]
multimedia
Content that uses a combination of different forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.[39]
network
A telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.[40]
open-source software
Computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.[41]
paradigm shift
A fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.[42]
project management
The discipline of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria.[43]
proprietary software
Computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights[44]
RFC (Request for Comments)
A type of publication from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Society (ISOC) that describes methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems.[45]
search engine
A software system that is designed to locate information on the World Wide Web.[46]
social media
Computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.[47]
TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
Accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products.[48]
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.[49]
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
The main international standards organization for the World Wide Web.[50]
web browser
A software application used to present, access, and pass information resources on the world wide web [51]

AssessmentsEdit

See AlsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Wikipedia: Internet
  2. Wikipedia: Internet
  3. Wikipedia: Internet
  4. Wikipedia: Internet
  5. Wikipedia: Internet
  6. Wikipedia: Internet
  7. Wikipedia: Internet
  8. Wikipedia: Internet
  9. Wikipedia: Internet
  10. Wikipedia: Internet
  11. Wikipedia: Internet
  12. Wikipedia: Internet
  13. Wikipedia: Internet
  14. Wikipedia: Internet
  15. Wikipedia: Internet
  16. Wikipedia: Internet
  17. Wikipedia: Internet
  18. Wikipedia: Cloud computing
  19. Wikipedia: Communications protocol
  20. Wikipedia: Computer security
  21. Wikipedia: Copyright
  22. Wikipedia: Cascading Style Sheets
  23. Wikipedia: Database
  24. Wikipedia: Email
  25. Wikipedia: Graphics
  26. Wikipedia: HTML
  27. Wikipedia: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
  28. Wikipedia: ICANN
  29. Wikipedia: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
  30. Wikipedia: Information technology
  31. Wikipedia: Intellectual property
  32. Wikipedia: International Organization for Standardization
  33. Wikipedia: Internet Engineering Task Force
  34. Wikipedia: Internet service provider
  35. Wikipedia: IPv4
  36. Wikipedia: IPv6
  37. Wikipedia: Java
  38. Wikipedia: JavaScript
  39. Wikipedia: Multimedia
  40. Wikipedia: Computer network
  41. Wikipedia: Open-source software
  42. Wikipedia: Paradigm shift
  43. Wikipedia: Project management
  44. Wikipedia: Proprietary software
  45. Wikipedia: Request for Comments
  46. Wikipedia: Web search engine
  47. Wikipedia: Social media
  48. Wikipedia: Telecommunications Industry Association
  49. Wikipedia: URL
  50. Wikipedia: World Wide Web Consortium
  51. Wikipedia: Web browser