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IT Fundamentals/Safety

< IT Fundamentals
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Safety is the state of being protected against the consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered non-desirable.[1] This lesson covers Internet safety, IT environmental issues, and related safety concepts.

Contents

PreparationEdit

Learners should already be familiar with Computer Use and Safety.

Objectives and SkillsEdit

Objectives and skills for the security and safety portion of IT Fundamentals certification include:[2]

  • Given a scenario, use web-browsing best practices
    • Recognize a secure connection/website
      • https
      • lock symbol
    • Recognize invalid certificate warnings
    • Recognize suspicious links
    • Recognize suspicious banner ads
    • Recognize adware symptoms
      • Constant popups
      • Home page redirection
      • Search engine redirection
    • Limit the use of personal information (PII)
    • Update browsers and plugins
      • Avoid use of legacy browsers
    • Disable unneeded/suspicious browser plugins, toolbars and extensions
    • Disable autofill forms/passwords
    • Clear browser cache/history/cookies
    • Recognize untrusted source warnings
    • Risks of using public workstations
  • Describe the importance and impact of various environmental and safety concepts
    • Proper disposal methods
      • RoHS
      • CRT monitors
      • Scanners
      • Batteries
      • Ink/toner
      • Hard drives
    • Power
      • Energy efficient devices
      • Power profiles
        • Power options
        • Sleep / hibernation
      • UPS vs. surge protector vs. power strip
        • Power limitations
      • International power differences
    • Device placement
      • Airflow
      • Humidity
      • Temperature
      • Dust accumulation
      • EMI
    • Electrostatic discharge concepts
    • Ergonomic concepts
      • Proper keyboard and mouse placement
      • Sitting positions
      • Monitor level placement
    • Follow manufacturer safety guidelines

ReadingsEdit

MultimediaEdit

ActivitiesEdit

  1. Practice web browser safety.
  2. Recycle computer equipment.
  3. Configure power settings for energy efficiency vs. performance.
  4. Evaluate safety risks of your computing environment.
    • Review OSHA: Computer Workstations eTool.
    • Check your computing environment for surge suppressor or UPS, equipment placement, temperature, humidity, and any liquid hazards.
    • Evaluate ergonomic placement of your display, keyboard, and mouse.

Lesson SummaryEdit

  • Web browsing best practices include:[3]
    • Using secure websites with valid certificates
    • Recognizing suspicious links and ads, and untrusted sources
    • Recognizing adware symptoms, including popups, home page redirection, and search engine redirection
    • Using current browsers with updated plugins
    • Disabling unneeded plugins, toolbars, and extensions
    • Using or disabling autofill forms
    • Clearing browser cache, history, and cookies
    • Understanding the risks of using public workstations
    • Limiting the use of personal information (PII)
  • A public key infrastructure (PKI) uses a trusted certificate authority (CA) to validate and sign public key certificates.[4]
  • A public key certificate contains the public key of the organization providing the certificate and the digital signature of the certificate authority that validated the certificate's information.[5]
  • A digital signature uses the signer's private key to generate the signature, allowing the signature to be validated using the signer's public key.[6]
  • Operating systems come pre-populated with public key certificates from certificate authorities.[7]
  • Proper disposal of computer equipment includes using a qualified recycler for systems, monitors, scanners, batteries, ink and toner cartridges to keep hazardous materials from contaminating the environment.[8]
  • Erase or wipe hard drives to eliminate sensitive information prior to disposal.[9]
  • PC power management refers to the mechanism for controlling the power use of personal computer hardware. Common operating system power settings include sleep and hibernation modes.[10]
  • Electrical power supply voltage and frequency varies between regions, with 120 volts and 60 cycles per second common in North America, and 230 volts and 50 cycles common in Europe. Voltage converters may be necessary for people traveling with mobile devices.[11]
  • Computers should be placed in locations that have good airflow while minimizing humidity and temperature issues, minimize dust accumulation, and avoid disruption from EMI sources.[12]
  • Electrostatic discharge (ESD) occurs when differently-charged objects are brought close together or when the dielectric between them breaks down, often creating a visible spark. ESD can cause damage to sensitive electronic devices.[13]
  • Electrostatic discharge may be controlled through the use of ESD-safe packing material, the use of conductive filaments on garments worn by assembly workers, conducting wrist straps and foot-straps to prevent high voltages from accumulating on workers' bodies, anti-static mats or conductive flooring materials to conduct harmful electric charges away from the work area, and humidity control.[14]
  • Physical ergonomics is the science of designing user interaction with equipment and workplaces to fit the user. Proper placement of screens, keyboards and mice can reduce eye-strain and repetitive stress injuries.[15]

Key TermsEdit

certificate authority (CA)
An entity that issues digital certificates.[16]
cookie
A small piece of data sent from a website and stored in a user's web browser or browser cache while the user is browsing that website.[17]
digital signature
A mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of an electronic message or document.[18]
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference)
Disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.[19]
EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse)
A short burst of electromagnetic energy.[20]
ESD (Electrostatic Discharge)
The sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.[21]
hibernation
Powering down a computer while retaining its state by saving the contents of random access memory (RAM) to a hard disk or other non-volatile storage.[22]
personally identifiable information (PII)
Information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context.[23]
power strip
A block of electrical sockets that attaches to the end of a flexible cable, allowing multiple electrical devices to be powered from a single electrical socket.[24]
public key certificate
An electronic document used to prove ownership of a public key based on the owner's identity, and the digital signature of an entity that has verified that identity.[25]
RoHS (Recycling of Hazardous Substances)
A European Union directive that restricts the use of hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment.[26]
sleep mode
A low power mode for electronic devices which, upon resume, allow the user to avoid having to reissue instructions or to wait for a machine to reboot.[27]
surge protector
An appliance that attempts to limit the voltage supplied to an electric device by either blocking or by shorting to ground any unwanted voltages above a safe threshold.[28]
voltage converter
A device which changes the voltage of an electrical power source.[29]
WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directive
A European Union directive that restricts disposal of electronic and electrical equipment due to hazardous waste.[30]

Review QuestionsEdit

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  1. Web browsing best practices include:
    Web browsing best practices include:

    Using secure websites with valid certificates
    Recognizing suspicious links and ads, and untrusted sources
    Recognizing adware symptoms, including popups, home page redirection, and search engine redirection
    Using current browsers with updated plugins
    Disabling unneeded plugins, toolbars, and extensions
    Using or disabling autofill forms
    Clearing browser cache, history, and cookies
    Understanding the risks of using public workstations
    Limiting the use of personal information (PII)

  2. A public key infrastructure (PKI) uses _____ to validate and sign public key certificates.
    A public key infrastructure (PKI) uses a trusted certificate authority (CA) to validate and sign public key certificates.
  3. A public key certificate contains _____ and _____.
    A public key certificate contains the public key of the organization providing the certificate and the digital signature of the certificate authority that validated the certificate's information.
  4. A digital signature uses _____ to generate the signature, allowing the signature to be validated using _____.
    A digital signature uses the signer's private key to generate the signature, allowing the signature to be validated using the signer's public key.
  5. Operating systems come pre-populated with _____ from certificate authorities.
    Operating systems come pre-populated with public key certificates from certificate authorities.
  6. Proper disposal of computer equipment includes using a qualified recycler for _____ to keep hazardous materials from contaminating the environment.
    Proper disposal of computer equipment includes using a qualified recycler for systems, monitors, scanners, batteries, ink and toner cartridges to keep hazardous materials from contaminating the environment.
  7. Erase or wipe hard drives to _____ prior to disposal.
    Erase or wipe hard drives to eliminate sensitive information prior to disposal.
  8. PC power management refers to the mechanism for controlling the power use of personal computer hardware. Common operating system power settings include _____ and _____ modes.
    PC power management refers to the mechanism for controlling the power use of personal computer hardware. Common operating system power settings include sleep and hibernation modes.
  9. Electrical power supply voltage and frequency varies between regions, with _____ common in North America, and _____ common in Europe. _____ may be necessary for people traveling with mobile devices.
    Electrical power supply voltage and frequency varies between regions, with 120 volts and 60 cycles per second common in North America, and 230 volts and 50 cycles common in Europe. Voltage converters may be necessary for people traveling with mobile devices.
  10. Computers should be placed in locations that have _____ while minimizing _____, and avoid _____.
    Computers should be placed in locations that have good airflow while minimizing humidity and temperature issues, minimize dust accumulation, and avoid disruption from EMI sources.
  11. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) occurs when _____. ESD can cause damage to sensitive electronic devices.
    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) occurs when differently-charged objects are brought close together or when the dielectric between them breaks down, often creating a visible spark. ESD can cause damage to sensitive electronic devices.
  12. Electrostatic discharge may be controlled through the use of _____,
    Electrostatic discharge may be controlled through the use of ESD-safe packing material, the use of conductive filaments on garments worn by assembly workers, conducting wrist straps and foot-straps to prevent high voltages from accumulating on workers' bodies, anti-static mats or conductive flooring materials to conduct harmful electric charges away from the work area, and humidity control.
  13. Physical ergonomics is the science of _____. Proper placement of screens, keyboards and mice can reduce _____ and _____.
    Physical ergonomics is the science of designing user interaction with equipment and workplaces to fit the user. Proper placement of screens, keyboards and mice can reduce eye-strain and repetitive stress injuries.

AssessmentsEdit

See AlsoEdit

ReferencesEdit