High School Biology/Lessons/Lesson 2

Plant and animal cells are both eukaryotic. This means that they have membrane-bound organelles like the nucleus and mitochondria. There a few similarities between plant and animal cells, (such as vacuoles and a cell membrane) but the way that animal and plant cells function are vastly different from each others.

Plant and animal cells have common organelles which performs similar functions on both plant and animal cells.↵They are > Mitochondria / Ribosomes / Endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth and Rough) / Nucleus (enclosed by a nuclear envelope) / Golgi body. Both plant and animal cells have cell membrane (which is selectively permeable) and a cytoplasm ( which surrounds cell organelles and contains cytoplasmic threads.

However, plant cells have chloroplasts, which is an organelle that conducts photosynthesis, and because animals get sugar from what they eat, they do not need chloroplasts to get their energy. Both plant and animal cells have vacuoles which is a space in the tissue that allows for storage and waste. In plant cells, there is one large vacuole which allows the cell to maintain it's water balance, while animal cells have many smaller vacuoles that help with waste. Centrioles are found in animal cells, but they are also found in some lower plant cells

Plant cells have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane, and the wall allows plant cells to maintain their rectangular shape. Animal cells only have a cell membrane.