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“God vs. science debates tend to be restricted to the premise that a God does not rely on science and that science does not need a God. As science and God are thus seen as mutually exclusive there are few, if any, serious attempts to construct mathematical models of a universe whose principle axiom does require a God (the Intelligent Design hypothesis). However, if there is an Intelligence responsible for the 14 billion year old universe of modern physics, being the universe of Einstein and Dirac, and beginning with the big bang as the act of 'creation', then we must ask how it might be done? What construction technique could have been used to set the laws of physics in motion?”[1]

The Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality, including the Earth and the universe, is in fact an artificial simulation, most likely a computer simulation.

The mathematical electron model outlined in the book Plato's Cave; the Source Code of the Gods [2]describes a method for programming our universe as a (computer) simulation. In this model, from a dimensionless formula for the electron can be derived the Planck units for mass, space (length), time and charge as geometrical objects (as opposed to using a numbering system). As these mathematical objects are indistinguishable from the respective physical structures, our reality can be considered to be a perceived reality (of geometrical forms). The units for mass, space, time and charge are not independent but overlap as dictated by the electron geometry, the sum universe itself being unit-less, particles as the means by which the universe stores and manipulates its data consistent with mathematical universe hypothesis models. The particular characteristic of this mathematical universe model being that it requires an external hand, a "Programmer".

God the ProgrammerEdit

Source codeEdit

The full simulation argument posits that the universe in its entirety, including all life forms, is a simulation, analogous to a computer simulation, that is programmed by an "intelligence" external to the simulated universe, the 'God as a Programmer' hypothesis. Such models look for evidence of a 'source code' underlying the laws of physics.

The following model operates at the Planck level. This model assigns dimensionless geometrical objects to particles and the Planck units (the basic units of mass, space, time and charge), the complexity of the universe deriving from the interactions between these objects. The model itself is divided into 4 parts.

  • A mathematical electron fe [3] is used to construct the Planck units as geometrical objects from 2 dimensionless physical constants (α, Ω) and a rule set that determines the relationships between the units. To translate from dimensionless geometrical objects into numerical systems such as the SI Planck units requires 2 numerical scalars.
  • The universe is an expanding hypersphere that increments in Planck size micro black holes in Planck-time steps and so for any chosen universe age in units of Planck time it is possible to calculate the mass and radiation density of the Planck black-hole universe [4].
  • All motion derives from the constant expansion of the hyper-sphere, in hyper-sphere co-ordinates all particles and objects travel at the speed of light (velocity of expansion), time and velocity are thereby constants, however particle 3-D space has no means to measure this motion and so self-aware structures are restricted to relative motion, for them relativity is the mathematics of perspective. [5]
  • Gravitational orbits are replaced by discrete gravitational orbitals (gravitons) as units of  . The orbital angular momentum of a planetary orbit and the rotational angular momentum of a planet becomes the sum of the orbital momentum, thereby resolving the problem of applying gravitational force between macro objects at the Planck level. [6]

Digital TimeEdit

Our present level of technology uses digital computers, consequently computer simulations use digital time instead of analog (continuous) time. It may be that future technologies and/or Gods use analog computers, however evidence that our universe time is digital rather than analog would strongly suggest a simulation. Quantum spacetime and Quantum gravity models refer to Planck time as the smallest discrete unit of time. A digital time simulation universe argument would then be as follows;

 FOR age = 1 TO the_end                       'in units of Planck time, big bang = 1         
     FOR n = 1 TO all_particles               'all the particles in the simulation	
         IF particle(n) = ...         
     NEXT n 
 NEXT age 

The variable age is the simulation clock-rate (the universe age) as measured in units of Planck time. For each age the n-loop calculations are performed, only when they are finished does age increment. As such, age is a (discrete) incremental variable and not a time dimension, for there is no interval between increments. Although the n-loop calculations may be extensive, self-aware structures from within the simulation would have no means to determine this, they would perceive themselves as being in a real-time. Information is exchanged by photons which are limited by the speed of light, therefore information exchanged in real time irrespective of distance could be construed as evidence of an 'n-loop'. The common example is the thought experiment; if the sun were to magically disappear, we would see this only 8 mins later (the time taken for photons to reach the earth), but would we continue to orbit the sun for those 8 mins or would we immediately drift off into space. Do the effects of gravity (as distinct from gravitational waves) update throughout the universe in real-time?

The dimension of time in physics would be a measure of relative motion and so although deriving from the variable age it would not be the same as age. If there were no motion, all particles and photons were still, then the dimension time would not update, the variable age would however continue to increment. The analogy being pressing the pause button on a film would not affect the computer clock-rate itself.

We cannot find evidence of 'God' in the laws of physics, there is no formula such as 'E = God.c2 in our textbooks, ... but if there is a source code from which these physical laws originated (a deeper set of laws than the laws of physics themselves) ... then this could be considered as prima facie evidence of a 'Programmer'[7]. 

External linksEdit


  2. Macleod, Malcolm J. |2018 edition |
  3. Macleod, Malcolm J. "Programming Planck units from a virtual electron; a Simulation Hypothesis". Eur. Phys. J. Plus 113: 278. 22 March 2018. doi:10.1140/epjp/i2018-12094-x. 
  4. Macleod, Malcolm J.; "Programming a Planck Universe Black-hole CMB and the Cosmological constant, a Simulation Hypothesis". SSRN. 21 June 2018. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3333513. 
  5. Macleod, Malcolm J.; "Programming relativity in a Planck-level hyper-sphere Universe Simulation". RG. Feb 2011. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.18574.00326. 
  6. Macleod, Malcolm J.; "Programming gravitational orbits via units of momentum for use in Planck unit Simulation Hypothesis models". RG. April 2018. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.11496.93445.