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Six genes have be shown to influence the risk of developing psychopathy: ANKK1, DRD2, DRD4, MAOA, COMT, and 5-HTTLPR. Individual expression of psychopathy related phenotypes depend on which combination of alleles are inherited in addition to environmental factors. In order to be at an elevated risk of psychopathy, an individual must inherit at least four psychopathy related alleles located at, at least, three different loci.

Genes linked to psychopathy

Loci

Characteristics

ANKK1

DRD2

MAOA

COMT

5-HTTLPR

Basal endophenotype

phenotype

Taq1 A2 allele

957T allele

 

 

 

calm

 

Taq1 A1 allele

957C allele

 

 

 

anxious

posttraumatic stress disorder

 

957C/C genotype

 

 

 

impulsive

schizophrenia

Taq1 A1 allele

957C/C genotype

 

 

 

dissocial

dissocial personality disorder

 

 

low activity

 

 

 

warrior

 

 

 

low activity

 

 

emotionally labile

 

 

 

 

long

 

leader

Taq1 A1 allele

957C/C genotype

low activity

 

 

dissocial

antisocial personality disorder

Taq1 A1 allele

957C/C genotype

 

low activity

 

dissocial

borderline personality disorder

Taq1 A1 allele

957C/C genotype

 

 

long

dissocial

narcissistic personality disorder

Taq1 A1 allele

957C/C genotype

low activity

low activity

 

dissocial

sadistic personality disorder

Taq1 A1 allele

957C/C genotype

low activity

 

long

dissocial

histrionic personality disorder

Taq1 A1 allele

957C/C genotype

 

low activity

long

dissocial

Munchausen by proxy

Taq1 A1 allele

957T allele

 

low activity

long

anxious

Munchausen syndrome

DRD4Edit

In addition to the DRD2 957C/C genotype, the DRD2 Taq1 B allele and polymorphisms in the promoter region of the DRD4 gene have also have been linked to psychopathy. This suggests that the dissocial and impulsive basal endophenotypes can be subdivided into at least seven subtypes: 1a, 1b, 1c, 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c.

Impulsive/dissocial subtypes

DRD2

DRD4

Subtype

957 locus

Taq1 B locus

-616 locus

C/C genotype

B1 allele-negative

-616G allele

1a

T allele

B1 allele-positive

-616G allele

1b

C/C genotype

B1 allele-positive

-616G allele

1c

T allele

B1 allele-negative

-616C/C genotype

2

C/C genotype

B1 allele-negative

-616C/C genotype

3a

T allele

B1 allele-positive

-616C/C genotype

3b

C/C genotype

B1 allele-positive

-616C/C genotype

3c

Further readingEdit