Gene expressions is a suite of genes, and their isoforms, that appear to be biochemically involved in the appearance of a trait.

In these images are a Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scans of a human hip bone, left, and a human spine, right. Credit: Thomas Lang, University of California in San Francisco, NASA.

Space travel changes the way genes are expressed.[1]

"NASA’s Twins Study preliminary results have revealed that space travel causes an increase in methylation, the process of turning genes on and off, and additional knowledge in how that process works."[2]

"Some of the most exciting things that we’ve seen from looking at gene expression in space is that we really see an explosion, like fireworks taking off, as soon as the human body gets into space. Chris Mason, Ph.D., of Weill Cornell Medicine, said. “With this study, we’ve seen thousands and thousands of genes change how they are turned on and turned off. This happens as soon as an astronaut gets into space, and some of the activity persists temporarily upon return to Earth."[3]

"This study represents one of the most comprehensive views of human biology. It really sets the bedrock for understanding molecular risks for space travel as well as ways to potentially protect and fix those genetic changes."[3]

The image on the right shows the loss of bone mass apparently due to long-term microgravity on the International Space Station. "[A]stronauts, on average, lost roughly 11 percent of their total hip bone mass over the course of their mission."[4]

Gene IDs edit

Gene ID: 249 ALPL alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney, alias bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP).

Gene ID: 348 APOE apolipoprotein E, one isoform (the gene itself). "The protein encoded by this gene is a major apoprotein of the chylomicron. It binds to a specific liver and peripheral cell receptor, and is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents." per NCBI entry. Intact osteocalcin (iBGP).

Gene ID: 1277 COL1A1 collagen type I alpha 1, i.e., type 1 procollagen propeptide, procollagen C-telopeptide.

Gene ID: 5741 PTH parathyroid hormone.

Gene ID: 7415 VCP valosin containing protein.

Gene ID: 9370 ADIPOQ adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing, i.e., free and bound deoxypyridinoline.

Hypotheses edit

  1. The transcription of each gene, or its isoforms, is the opportunity to influence under or over expression.

See also edit

References edit

External links edit