Gene transcriptions/Elements/TCs

"Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. [A] novel TGFβ control element (TCE) [occurs] in the promoters of SMC differentiation marker genes including α SM actin and SM22α."[1]

Baby bunny is at Floyd Lamb Park. Credit: Renee Grayson.{{free media}}

The "promoters of multiple other SMC differentiation marker genes including SM22α and SM-MHC were also found to contain similar TCE regions [11]."[1]

The "α SM actin CArG element (CArG A) was required in combination with the TCE to coordinately regulate TGFβ-induced α SM actin expression in cultured cells [11]."[1]

Consensus sequences edit

The consensus sequence for the TCE in mouse and rat is 5'-GAGTGGGGCG-3' (-117) within the SM22α promoter which extends from -450 to +65 and includes two CArG transcription factors upstream of the TCE.[1]

In mouse and rat SM22α promoters there are 14 nts between the nearest upstream CArG and the TCE, specifically 5'-AGCCTGTGTGGAGT-3'.[1]

"The sequence of the TCE in the human c-myc promoter is [5'-GCGTGGGGGA-3']."[2]

The "TGF-β inhibitory element (TIE [5'-GAGTGGTGA-3']) [is] in the rat transin/stromelysin promoter(12)."[2]

"Robbins et al. (18) have reported that expression of pRB in mouse fibroblasts suppresses transcription of c-fos and have identified an element, termed the retinoblastoma control element (RCE), in the c-fos promoter necessary for this suppression. More recently, sequences homologous to the RCE have been identified in the TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3 promoters by Kim et al. (19)."[2]

"Kim et al. (19) also reported that sequences similar to the RCE are present in the human c-myc promoter".[2]

See also edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Paul J. Adam, Christopher P. Regan, Martina B. Hautmann, Gary K. Owens (August 22, 2000). "Positive and Negative Acting Krüppel-like Transcription Factors Bind a Transforming Growth Factor Beta Control Element Required for Expression of the Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation Marker SM22α In Vivo". Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 (48): 37798-37806. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006323200. Retrieved 5 December 2018. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Jennifer A. Pietenpol, Karl Munger, Peter M. Howley, Roland W. Stein and Harold L. Moses (November 15, 1991). "Factor-binding element in the human c-myc promoter involved in transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor β1 and by the retinoblastoma gene product". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88 (22): 10227-10231. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.22.10227. Retrieved 5 December 2018. 

External links edit