"Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. [A] novel TGFβ control element (TCE) [occurs] in the promoters of SMC differentiation marker genes including α SM actin and SM22α."
The "promoters of multiple other SMC differentiation marker genes including SM22α and SM-MHC were also found to contain similar TCE regions ."
The "α SM actin CArG element (CArG A) was required in combination with the TCE to coordinately regulate TGFβ-induced α SM actin expression in cultured cells ."
The consensus sequence for the TCE in mouse and rat is 5'-GAGTGGGGCG-3' (-117) within the SM22α promoter which extends from -450 to +65 and includes two CArG transcription factors upstream of the TCE.
In mouse and rat SM22α promoters there are 14 nts between the nearest upstream CArG and the TCE, specifically 5'-AGCCTGTGTGGAGT-3'.
"The sequence of the TCE in the human c-myc promoter is [5'-GCGTGGGGGA-3']."
The "TGF-β inhibitory element (TIE [5'-GAGTGGTGA-3']) [is] in the rat transin/stromelysin promoter(12)."
"Robbins et al. (18) have reported that expression of pRB in mouse fibroblasts suppresses transcription of c-fos and have identified an element, termed the retinoblastoma control element (RCE), in the c-fos promoter necessary for this suppression. More recently, sequences homologous to the RCE have been identified in the TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3 promoters by Kim et al. (19)."
"Kim et al. (19) also reported that sequences similar to the RCE are present in the human c-myc promoter".
- Paul J. Adam, Christopher P. Regan, Martina B. Hautmann, Gary K. Owens (August 22, 2000). "Positive and Negative Acting Krüppel-like Transcription Factors Bind a Transforming Growth Factor Beta Control Element Required for Expression of the Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation Marker SM22α In Vivo". Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 (48): 37798-37806. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006323200. http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2000/08/22/jbc.M006323200.full.pdf. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- Jennifer A. Pietenpol, Karl Munger, Peter M. Howley, Roland W. Stein and Harold L. Moses (November 15, 1991). "Factor-binding element in the human c-myc promoter involved in transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor β1 and by the retinoblastoma gene product". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88 (22): 10227-10231. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.22.10227. http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/88/22/10227.full.pdf. Retrieved 5 December 2018.