Gene transcriptions/Boxes/ATAs

The ATA box is a variant of the TATA box that appears in the globin and other genes. Instead of a sequence TATA as in the TATA box, the ATA box lacks the first thymine (T) and may be tissue specific.

Consensus sequences edit

"The 3' flanking area contained the highly conserved hexanucleotide sequence A-A-T-A-A-A found in eukaryotic messages between the terminator codon and the polyadenylylation site (44)."[1]

"ATA boxes [AATAAA] can be clearly identified in the chicken αA- and αD-globin genes about 70 bp upstream from the initiator ATG codon [...] The sequences of the proposed cap sites agree with those determined for other globin genes (Fig. 6A; Refs. 15, 24, and 32) as do their positions relative to the ATA boxes"[2]

An ATA box may have the sequence AAATAT.[3] The CArG box has the sequence CCTATTATGG.[3]

"The [Sminthopsis crassicaudata putative embryonic β-globin gene] ATA box, located 30 bp 5' to the putative cap site, is of the form AAATAAAA typically found in eutherian embryonic β-like globin genes. In sequence comparisons with ATA boxes from human, mouse, and [Didelphis virginiana] adult and embryonic β-like globin genes, the S.c-ε ATA box was found to most closely resemble that found in the D. virginiana ε-globin gene (Fig 4)."[4]

This suggests a consensus sequence of 3'-AAATA(A/T)A-5' on the template strand, or perhaps 3'-(A/C/G/T)AATA(A/T)A-5'.

Human genes edit

GeneID: 3043 HBB hemoglobin subunit beta [ Homo sapiens (human) ] "The alpha (HBA) and beta (HBB) loci determine the structure of the 2 types of polypeptide chains in adult hemoglobin, Hb A. The normal adult hemoglobin tetramer consists of two alpha chains and two beta chains. Mutant beta globin causes sickle cell anemia. Absence of beta chain causes beta-zero-thalassemia. Reduced amounts of detectable beta globin causes beta-plus-thalassemia. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is 5'-epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'."[5]

Cystatin genes edit

The "four cystatin genes [GeneID: 1469 CST1, GeneID: 1470 CST2, GeneID: 1471 CST3, and GeneID: 1472 CST4] contain the ATA-box sequence (ATAAA) in their 5'-flanking regions; however, the CAT-box sequence (CAT), a binding site of the transcription factor, CTF, is found only in the 5'-flanking region of the S-type cystatin genes."[6]

β-thalassemia edit

"DNA sequence analysis of a cloned β-globin gene from a Chinese patient with β-thalassemia revealed a single nucleotide substitution (A→ G) within the ATA box homology and 28 base pairs upstream from the cap site."[7]

"Comparison of the level of β-globin transcripts in a variety of deletion mutants shows that for efficient transcription, both the ATA or Goldberg–Hogness box, and a region between 100 and 58 base pairs in front of the site at which transcription is initiated, are required. Deletion of either of these regions results in a decrease in the level of β-globin transcripts by an order of magnitude; deletion of the ATA box causes an additional loss in the specificity of the site of initiation of RNA synthesis. The DNA sequences downstream from the ATA box, including the natural β-globin mRNA cap site, are dispensable for transcription in vivo."[8]

"The first is a sequence rich in the nucleic acids adenine and thymine (the Goldberg-Hogness, "TATA," or "ATA" box) which is located 20-30 base pairs upstream from the RNA initiation site (the cap site which is the transcriptional start site for the mRNA) and is characterized by a concensus sequence (5'-TATAA-ATA-3')."[9]

Hypotheses edit

  1. A1BG is not transcribed by an ATA box.

See also edit

References edit

  1. Stephen A. Liebhaber, Michel J. Goossens, and Yuet Wai Kan (December 1980). "Cloning and complete nucleotide sequence of human 5'-α-globin gene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 77 (12): 7054-8. Retrieved 2013-06-28. 
  2. Jerry B. Dodgson and James Douglas Engel (10 April 1983). "The nucleotide sequence of the adult chicken alpha-globin genes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 258 (7): 4623-9. Retrieved 2017-02-04. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Shigemi Kimura, Kuniya Abe, Misao Suzuki, Masakatsu Ogawa, Kowashi Yoshioka, Tadasi Kaname, Teruhisa Miike and Ken-ichi Yamamura (June 1997). "A 900 bp genomic region from the mouse dystrophin promoter directs lacZ reporter expression only to the right heart of transgenic mice". Development, Growth & Differentiation 39 (3): 257-65. doi:10.1046/j.1440-169X.1997.t01-2-00001.x. Retrieved 2013-06-28. 
  4. Steven J.B. Cooper and Rory M.HOPE (December 1993). "Evolution and expression of a beta-like globin gene of the Australian marsupial Sminthopsis crassicaudata". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90: 11777-81. Retrieved 2017-02-04. 
  5. RefSeq (July 2008). HBB hemoglobin subunit beta ( Homo sapiens (human) ). Bethesda, MD, USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2017-02-04. 
  6. Eiichi Saitoh and Satoko Isemura (January 1, 1993). "Molecular Biology of Human Salivary Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors". Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 4 (3/4): 487-93. doi:10.1177/10454411930040033301. Retrieved 2013-06-28. 
  7. Stuart H. Orkin, Julianne P. Sexton, Tu-chen Cheng, Sabra C. Goff, Patricia J. V. Giardina, I. Lee Joseph and Haig H. Hazazian Jr. (1983). "ATA box transcription mutation in β-thalassemia". Nucleic Acids Research 11 (14): 4727-34. doi:10.1093/nar/11.14.4727. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  8. G. C. Grosveld, E. De Boer, C. K. Shewmaker, & R. A. Flavell (January 14, 1982). "DNA sequences necessary for transcription of the rabbit β-globin gene in vivo". Nature 295 (5845): 120-6. doi:10.1038/295120a0. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  9. GE Smith, MD Summers (1988). "Method for producing a recombinant baculovirus expression vector". US Patent (4,745,051). Retrieved 2014-05-29. 

External links edit