Fundamentals of Neuroscience/Exams

Conceptual Overviews (lessons 1-5)

Quiz I
  • Type classification: this is a quiz resource.


    1 All of these are subfields of neuroscience EXCEPT:

    Computational neuroscience

    2 What is the part of the neuron which primarily receives signals?

    Cell body

    3 A sensory neuron located in the hand would be considered a:

    Peripheral afferent neuron
    Peripheral efferent neuron
    Central afferent neuron
    Central efferent neuron

    4 What cell in the brain is capable of phagocytoisis as part of immune function?

    Schwann Cells

    5 All of these are functions of glia cells EXCEPT:

    Synthesizing neurotransmitters
    Maintaining a proper ionic milieu
    Promoting neuron survival
    Synthesizing myelin

    6 Control of the body's voluntary muscles is orchestrated by the:

    Sympathetic nervous system
    Parasympathetic nervous system
    Autonomic nervous system
    Somatic nervous system

    7 Rapid heart-rate, sweating, dilated pupils, and faster breathing indicate activation of this nervous system branch:

    Sympathetic nervous system
    Parasympathetic nervous system
    Peripheral nervous system
    Somatic nervous system

    8 Select all of the following which are closely related to the action of the neurotransmitter dopamine:

    Reward circuits
    Impulse control

    9 T/F: There is a higher concentration of sodium ions (Na+) outside the cell than inside.


    10 What is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system?


    11 Opening a potassium ion (K+) channel would have what effect on the neuron's membrane potential?

    Firing of an action potential

    12 Many insecticides and nerve agents work by blocking the degradation of acetylcholine in the synapse. What effect would this have on the cells?

    The presynaptic neuron would run out of acetyl choline and no longer be able to signal the postynaptic neuron
    As levels of acetylcholine rise, it would be toxic to the cells
    Acetycholine would keep telling the postsynaptic neuron to fire, leading to uncontrolled firing

    13 What is the "all-or-none" principle of synaptic transmission?

    When neurotransmitters is released, it will either open all of the sodium channels or none of them depending on how much is released
    If the membrane potential exceeds a certain threshold, then the cell will send a single signal, otherwise it will send none
    If the excitation is strong enough to trigger an action potential, then a hyperpolarization phase must ensure, otherwise no hyperpolarization will occur

    14 Because the resting potential is _______, depolarization means __________ while hyperpolarization means __________.

    negative, more positive, more negative
    negative, more negative, more positive
    positive, more positive, more negative
    positive, more negative, more positive

    15 T/F: The corpus callosum is made of grey matter


    16 Select all of the following brain structures that exist as pairs in the brain:

    Temporal lobe

    17 All of the following are considered part of the brain stem EXCEPT:


    18 Select all of the following which are functions of the hypothalamus:


    19 Select all of the following brain regions which are correctly matched to their function:

    Thalamus- relaying information between the two brain hemispheres
    Midbrain- regulating sleep
    Amygdala- modulating heart rate and respiration
    Cortex- complex cognitive processes
    Cerebellum- fine-tuning motion

    20 Select all of the following brain regions which are (still) correctly matched to their function:

    Occipital lobe- motion detection and color perception
    Temporal lobe- emotion and fear responses
    Parietal lobe- spatial awareness
    Cerebrum- Memory formation

Focused Topics (lessons 6-10)

Quiz II
  • Type classification: this is a quiz resource.


    1 The peripheral nervous system is derived from what embryonic structure?

    Neural tube
    Neural crest

    2 The first basic step in development is:

    Cell differentiation
    Neural tube formation
    Neural crest formation

    3 During early childhood, what is the predominant change occurring in the brain?

    Growth of connections
    Gyrus formation in the cortex
    Enlargement of neurons
    Loss of connections

    4 T/F: Myelination occurs at every stage of post-natal brain development


    5 What is the neurological term for the brain's ability to undergo changes?


    6 What brain region, crucial to sleep patterns, is sensitive to changes in light?

    Reticular formation
    Suprachiasmatic nucleus
    Occipital lobe

    7 Select all of the phenomena which can promote drowsiness and sleep:

    Percieved light level
    Decreased neurotrasnmitter availibility
    Buildup of adenosine
    Action of the hormone melatonin
    Action of the hormone melanin

    8 Differences between NREM and REM sleep include all of the following EXCEPT:

    Eye movement
    Temporary paralysis
    Selective brain region deactivation
    Occurance of Dreams
    Neural activity patterns

    9 Select all of the following which are theories for sleep's biological utility:

    Replenishing neurotransmitter levels
    Replenishing hormone levels
    Establishing new channels and receptors
    Breaking down more ATP
    Boosting proper development and learning

    10 T/F: Inhibitory neurons in the cortex lead to a loss of consciousness during sleep


    11 All of the following are true of semantic memories EXCEPT:

    They pertain to concrete facts
    They are a form of declarative memory
    They are ultimately stored in the cerebrum
    They can include autobiographical memories

    12 Select all of the following which must occur for a working memory to be maintained:

    Biochemical changes occur at the synapse
    A neuronal 'loop' is replayed
    Sensory regions are recruited to reconstruct perceptions
    The hippocampus is highly activated

    13 Long term potentiaion (LTP) is:

    A process of creating new connections and associations to form a memory
    A process of removing inhibitory inputs impeding a certain memory circuit
    A process of strengthening already existing synaptic connections

    14 Select all which occur during memory recall:

    The memory experience is recreated in the brain
    The memory is moved from the hippocampus to the cerebrum
    Neuronal connections forming the memory may be altered
    Enough of the accompanying memory 'network' must be activated to recover the memory
    Neurons within the memory network must synchronize their firing

    15 After passing through the primary auditory cortex, what is the first language processing area words pass through?

    Broca's area
    Wernicke's area
    Geschwind's territory

    16 All of the following are involved in articulation of language EXCEPT:

    Primary motor cortex must be highly activated
    Specific phonemes must be selected to form words
    Muscle movements of facial muscles must be precisely coordinated
    Broca's area must oversee speech production

    17 T/F: Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and Geshwind's territory are almost always found on only the left side of the brain


    18 An emergent property is one that:

    Emerges unexpectidely with few indications of its origins
    Generates complex behavior out of the interactions of simple parts
    Is inevitable and must result from a certain stimulus input
    Is formed by a circuit

    19 T/F: Emotion is a largely conscious experience independent of rational judgement


    20 Select all of the brain regions correctly matched with their role in emotion:

    Thalamus- tagging sensory input as emotionally arousing or not
    Amygdala- center for fear and aggression
    Anterior cingulate- controlling emotional responses with rational inhibition
    Hypothalamus- signaling information about emotional cues to the thalamus
    Prefrontal cortex- abnegating immediate reward for goal-oriented behavior

Senses and Movement (lessons 11-15)

Quiz III
  • Type classification: this is a quiz resource.


    1 The purpose of the eye's lens is to:

    Magnify images
    Focus light
    Enhance images
    Reflect light

    2 How is visual information sorted by preliminary optic pathways?

    Input from the left eye travels to the left visual cortex, and vice versa
    Input from the left eye travels to the right visual cortex, and vice versa
    Input from the left field of vision travels to the left visual cortex, and vice versa
    Input from the left field of vision travels to the right visual cortex, and vice versa

    3 All of the following are true about the visual system EXCEPT:

    Cone cells are more abundant than rod cells
    Rod cells are adept at motion detection
    Cone cells are concentrated where visual acuity is greatest
    Rod cells do not respond selectively to different wavelengths of light

    4 Select all of the following which accurately describe cortical visual processing:

    Each successive layer processes increasingly complex visual information
    The primary visual cortex (V1) already processes motion information
    Color perception begins at the V2 layer of the occipital cortex
    Depth perception is generated by advanced level spatial understanding pathways
    The visual stream passing through the parietal lobe is responsible for object recognition

    5 Which of the following best describes how sound waves enter the cochlea?

    Pressure waves in the air vibrate a membrane on the cochlea
    Specialized nerve cells detect air vibration and send this information to the cochlea
    Pressure waves trigger the movement of a series of bones which vibrate the cochlea

    6 T/F: The first nervous system cells involved in hearing are hair cells


    7 What role do mechanoreceptors play in the cochlea?

    Detecting vibrations of the cochlear membrane
    Detecting the movement of fluid within the cochlea
    Detecting the force exerted by the ossicles
    The cochlea does not contain any mechanoreceptors

    8 All of the following are true about auditory processing EXCEPT:

    Sound location is determened by interaural time differnces
    Pitch information is encoded by what area of the cochlea gets activated
    Both the primary and secondary auditory cortices are on the temporal lobe
    The first destination of the auditory nerve coming from the ear is the primary auditory cortex

    9 T/F: The olfactory bulb is linked to the limbic system


    10 The chemicals responsible for smell and taste are, respectively:

    Olfactants and gustants
    Olfactants and tastants
    Odorants and gustants
    Odorants and tastants

    11 Perceptual qualities in both taste and smell are generated by

    Activation of receptors specific for certain perceptions
    Activation of collections of receptors in different patterns
    Differential activation of receptors at specific regions of the tongue or olfactory bulb
    Co-activation of two receptor types by a specific stimulus

    12 Select all of the following which could be detected by a mechanoreceptor:


    13 How is a given class of receptor's sensitivity primarily determined?

    Receptor shape and location on the body
    Receptor density and shape
    Receptor depth in the skin and density
    All receptors within a given class are equally sensitive to stimulation

    14 How are sensory inputs organized by the primary sensory cortex?

    According to location on the body
    According to receptor type
    According to stimulus type
    According to receptor depth in the skin

    15 Select all of the ways a nociceptor may be activated:

    Directly by physical damage to the cell
    Directly by a strong pressure applied to the cell
    Directly by the loss of cells
    Indirectly by chemicals released by damaged cells
    Indirectly by chemicals released by immune cells
    Indirectly by psychological influences

    16 Differences between touch processing and pain processing include:

    Many classes and types of mechnoreceptors vs few varying types
    Passing through intermediate processing steps vs direct route to the cortex
    Most receptors near the surface of the skin vs most buried in the lower dermis
    One main cortical processing area vs very diffuse processing

    17 What is the neurotransmitter used at neuromuscular synapses?

    Many types of neurotransmitters are usually used

    18 What is the role of the basal ganglia in movement?

    Generating movement commands
    Filtering out excess movement commands
    Atuning muscle coordination
    Processing inputs from muscle spindles

    19 What is the role of muscle spindles in movement?

    Causing muscle fibers to contract
    Causing muscle fibers to relax
    Detecting muscle stretch following contraction
    Detecting muscle fatigue (through lactate levels)

    20 T/F: Involuntary motion only requires basic input from the brainstem or cerebellum


Disorders (lessons 16-20)

Quiz IV
  • Type classification: this is a quiz resource.


    1 All of the following are symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders EXCEPT:

    Impaired communication
    Social difficulties
    Repetitive behavior
    Lack of focus
    Improper sensory processing

    2 The chief distinction between an Autism diagnosis and one for Asperger's Syndrome is:

    Acquisition of language
    Exceptional abilities in one subject
    Severity of behavioral restriction
    General intelligence scores

    3 Select all of the following which ADD and ADHD have in common:


    4 The brain region most implicated in ADD/ADHD and which is targeted by most drugs is:

    Parietal cortex
    Prefrontal cortex
    Basal ganglia
    Limbic System

    5 Select all of the following that are BOTH learning disabilities, and correctly matched:

    Dyscalcula- Difficulties in mathmatics
    Dysliria- Difficulties in reading comprehension
    Dyslexia- Difficulties in writing
    Dysgraphia- Difficulties in drawing pictures

    6 T/F: A learning disability can be distinguished from intellectual disabilities by specific versus general impairment


    7 The two abnormalities which accumulate in Alzheimer's patients are:

    Beta Amyloid plaques and Gama scleroses
    Tau neurofibularly tangles and Gama scleroses
    Beta Amyloid plaques and Tau neurofibularly tangles
    Delta fissures and Beta Amyloid plaques

    8 The brain region which degenerates in Parkinson's disease is the:

    Basal ganglia
    Substantia nigra
    Primary motor cortex

    9 Certain drugs can alleviate some of the symptoms of Parkinson's by repleting what neurotransmitter:


    10 What causes multiple sclerosis?

    Broad brain degeneration due to aging and plaque buildup
    Localized brain degeneration due to the death of certain cells
    Breaking of axonal connections to other neurons due to damage
    Loss of myelin due to autoimmune attacks

    11 Select all of the following which are probable contributing causes to anxiety disorders:

    Dopamine depletion
    Heightened hormonal sensitivity
    Selective neurological degeneration
    GABA depletion

    12 All of the following are symptoms of schizophrenia except:

    Absence of emotional responses
    Distorted perceptions of reality
    Elevated levels of aggression
    Behavioral disorganization

    13 T/F: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly prescribed in cases of depression.


    14 Most of the neurological damage caused by an average car accident would be because of:

    Direct impact and vascular damage
    Whiplash and swelling
    Direct impact and swelling
    Whiplash and vascular damage

    15 Select all of the following which are signs of a stroke:

    Weakness on one side of the body
    Drastic mood changes
    Speech issues

    16 T/F: General seizures often result in various types of hallucinations


    17 Select all of the following involving to dysfunctions in regulation of the neurotransmitter GABA:


    18 All of the following are immediate priorities in treating brain injury EXCEPT:

    Reducing swelling for trauma
    Enhancing blood flow for stroke
    Clearing obstructions for stroke
    Reducing inflammation for stroke

    19 Select all of the following which are correctly defined:

    Tolerance- gradual reduction in substance's harm
    Withdrawl- period of severe discomfort following substance abstenance
    Relapse- return to treatment

    20 Based on the neurological definition of addiction, what is capable of being addictive?

    Any drug
    Any ingested substance
    Any behavior
    Any substance or behavior

Brain anatomy