Ethical medical research/In papyro, in silico, in situ, and in vitro guide

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This is a resource for non-animal medical testing. Pertaining to this are in papyro, in silico, in situ, and in vitro studies. An explanation of the tools and resources in virtual testing will be shown.


External multimedia: Computer aided drug design





Electronic hardware specificEdit


Research chemicals, petri dishes, test tubes and other lab equipment can be bought online. Organ-on-a-chip is in plans to be manufactured by Sony with the co-development by Harvard's Wyss Institute to be accessible to the marketplace.[6] Several organ type organ-on-a-chips are in development. Currently cell cultures in petri dishes or test tubes are used, which has some limitations.


Microdosing uses less than a salt grain size of a chemical to be tested.


  1. OptFlux: an open-source software platform for in silico metabolic engineering, BMC Systems Biology, 2010, doi:10.1186/1752-0509-4-45, PMC 2864236
  2. Biology enters 'The Matrix' through new computer language, Harvard Medical School; Eurek Alert!, 2008
  3. University of Alberta (September 5, 2013), "What scientists can see in your pee", PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073076
  4. FAF-Drugs: free ADME/tox filtering of compound collections, Nucleic Acids Research, July 14, 2006, doi:10.1093/nar/gkl065, PMC 1538885
  5. Washington University School of Medicine (October 13, 2013), "Database of disease genes shows potential drug therapies", Nature Methods, Medical Xpress, doi:10.1038/nmeth.2689
  6. Harvard’s Wyss Institute teams with Sony to advance organs-on-chips, Boston Business Journal, 2013