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The Trundholm Sun chariot pulled by a horse is a sculpture believed to be illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. The sculpture is probably from around 1350 [Anno Domini] BC. It is displayed at the National Museum of Denmark. Credit: Malene Thyssen.

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1 True or False, The principal difference between ancient astronomical history and archeoastronomy is "cultural interpretations of phenomena in the sky."


2 Which of the following is not a studied characteristic of the early history of astronomy?

the North Polar region
the first celestial globe
trained observers of today are different from the observers of antiquity

3 Name a Neolithic monument in England that may have functioned as a celestial observatory

4 Which group of astronomers were the first to keep written records of what they learned about the heavens?

5 Which of the following is not in the history of neutrino astronomy?

Enrico Fermi coined the term "neutrino"
Wolfgang Pauli postulated the muon neutrino
in the Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment, antineutrinos are created
a hydrogen bubble chamber was used to detect neutrinos
Niels Bohr was opposed to the neutrino interpretation of beta decay
a neutrino hitting a proton is detectable

6 What is the name of the oldest recorded star catalog?

7 True or False, The Goddard rocket was the first sounding rocket to carry an X-ray detector above the Earth's atmosphere.


8 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with the history of optical astronomy?

actuators may be a part of active optics
the Vela satellites were the first devices in space ever to detect optical bursts
Galileo made a telescope with about 3x magnification
Galileo sold his telescopes to merchants
Sidereus Nuncius
a terrestrial telescope or a spyglass could also be used to observe the sky

9 The rising Sun illuminates the inner chamber of Newgrange, Ireland, only at which solstice.

10 True or False, Infrared astronomy began in the 1730s, a few decades after the discovery of infrared light by William Herschel


11 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with the history of violet astronomy?

photographs of the planet Venus taken in 1927
two nebulous bright streaks running approximately perpendicular to the terminator on Venus
observations of Venus in 1959 with spectrographs show a wide continuous absorption
the stellar abundance of aluminum
the Galileo spacecraft observed Venus
the helium beta line

12 Who first proposed the hypothesis that the Sun is at rest, while the Earth and the planets rotate about the Sun?

13 True or False, A new archaeological excavation has found a Babylonian telescope for the first time.


14 The history of astronomy, archaeoastronomy, and the application of historical records to modern astrophysical problems have been included in what astronomy?

15 True or False, The astronomer Clyde Tombaugh is the discoverer of Charon.


16 Which of the following is a phenomenon associated historically with yellow astronomy?

sodium line emission
sunspots on the Sun
an emission with a wavelength of 420 nm

17 A collection of architectural astronomical instruments, built by Maharaja Jai Singh II at his then new capital of Jaipur between 1727 and 1733 is known as the

18 True or False, To ancient astronomers stars remain relatively fixed over the centuries while planets move an appreciable amount during a comparatively short time.


19 What term was first used with reference to the transfer of momentum from the Sun to the planets in 1942

20 True or False, The Sun is a classical planet.


21 From a historical perspective which of the following is not characteristic of the solar corona

the solar corona is electric
it drives away the tails of comets
a net charge on the Sun of approximately -0.3 x 1028 e.s.u.
extrasolar planets
the Reverend Lecturer referring to coronal holes
"the coronoidal discharges in poor vacua obtained by Prof. Pupin about an insulated metal ball are exceedingly like the rays and streamers of the solar corona."

22 True or False, The observations of planetary motion agree with computed orbits to the accuracy of the observations.


23 Considering Spöerer's law which phenomenon is not associated with sunspots?

the forerunners of the new cycle are beginning to appear in high latitudes
in a minimum year the zone about 15° should be entirely barren
the greatest group of the year
the celebrated "eclipse group"
a cause produces variation of rotation rate with latitude
[T]here is a slight acceleration of the rotation period from the first cycle to the second

24 Name a classical planet that was not apparently seen in the sky before 5102 b2k

25 True or False, Tally sticks, notched bones dating as far back as 20–30,000 years ago, are believed by some to mark the sunspot cycle.


26 To the Babylonians, this object represented their god Marduk.

27 True or False, The V 2 rocket was first used as a sounding rocket for X-ray astronomy before being converted to a weapon.


28 The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is an astronomical document produced to help astronomers for what purpose?

predict the end of the Earth
determine the accuracy of local computers
accurately predict the equinoxes
demonstrate that Venus was once a comet
predict when currently dormant volcanoes will erupt
demonstrate that the local pyramids were built by aliens

29 On 19 May 1910, the Earth actually passed through the tail of what comet.

30 True or False, Demetrius "lived at Abdère 300 years before the Christian era [2300 b2k]. In a short fragment quoted by Plutarch, he declares that the Milky Way is an agglomeration of small stars too far away to be perceived singly."


31 Johannes Kepler is not known for which of the following?

being an astrologer
a key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution
Euclidean geometry
projective geometry
if a straight line is extended to infinity it will meet itself at a single point at infinity, thus having the properties of a large circle
Rudolphine Tables

32 What type of early calculator is capable of working out several kinds of spherical astronomy problems

33 True or False, Historically, observatories were as simple as having some alignments on astronomical phenomena.


34 Sputnik I was involved in which of the following astronomies?

red astronomy
stellar astronomy
neutrino astronomy
radio astronomy
neutron astronomy
X-ray astronomy

35 "El Caracol" is an observatory at Chichen Itza, Mexico, serving at the very least as an observation.

36 True or False, The first gamma-ray telescope was carried into orbit aboard OSO 3.


37 Historically, orange astronomy is not known for which of the following?

Alpha Centauri B
Epsilon Eridani
K spectral type stars
the Bayer designation for a star
the Indian city of Pondicherry in December 1689

38 Soon after the invention of radar astronomy, what classical planet was detected

39 True or False, Analysis of tree rings has revealed a detailed picture of past solar cycles.


40 Cheomseongdae was involved in which of the following astronomies?

cosmic-ray astronomy
infrared astronomy
neutrino astronomy
visual astronomy
ultraviolet astronomy
radio astronomy

41 Before the current era and perhaps before 6,000 b2k which classical planet may have been green?


  1. The history of radiation astronomy dates at least to 42,000 b2k.

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