This laboratory is an activity for you to create a universe. While it is part of the astronomy course principles of radiation astronomy, it is also independent.

This is an image of Chaos magnum from a book. Credit: Sailko.

Some suggested primordial entities to consider are electromagnetic radiation, neutrinos, mass, time, Euclidean space, Non-Euclidean space, dark matter, dark energy, purple phantoms, and spacetime.

More importantly, there are your primordial entities.

And, yes, you can create a universe from a peanut butter and jelly sandwich if you wish to.

You may choose to define your primordial entities or not.

Usually, research follows someone else's ideas of how to do something. But, in this laboratory you can create these too.



evaluation activity

This is an astronomy cosmogony laboratory, but you may create what an astronomy, a cosmogony, or a laboratory is.

Yes, this laboratory is structured. And, you are providing it. Or, not, an unstructured universe is okay too.

I will provide an example of a cosmogony. The rest is up to you.

Questions, if any, are best placed on the discussion page.


You are free to create your own notation.

Control groupsEdit

For creating a universe, what would make an acceptable control group? Plants maybe, insects perhaps, popsicles are okay too. Think about a control group to compare your universe or your process of creating a universe to. Or, not.


Electromagnetism exists. It is neither finite not infinite but uncountable.

As a characteristic, the magnetic field and the electric field are at 90° to each other.

Constructive interference when it occurs may result in a particle. Destructive interference also occurs and may result in a tachyonic particle.

The appearance of Euclidean dimensions occurs only from the point of view of particles within the electromagnetism. No particles, no three of four dimensions of volume, motion, or time.

The appearance of motion occurs as particles increase, decrease, disinterfere or self-propagate through repulsion or attraction.


Is this cosmogony for the universe? Yes.

What came before electromagnetism? The concept of coming before (cause and effect) only comes into existence once particles are complex enough to compose the concept. But, it is an approach to understanding not necessarily understanding.

What is gravity? A special case of attraction between particles that can be replaced by appropriate equations for electromagnetism including such forms as the strong force and weak force.

The higher the number of particles the stronger is its effect on another set of particles.

Does the universe have a beginning? The answer is unknown because a beginning may be created by particles just as an end may be created.

Is the universe rational? It is irrational resulting in irrational real numbers such as π. The imaginary number i = (-1)1/2 does not exist in the universe but does exist in hominin mathematics.

What moves through the speed of light? As the universe of electromagnetism is uncountable a method or technique for propelling or motivating an object (an enormous collection of particles appearing ordered) to move across the universe is developable.


In the real universe, a location for a nest of particles may be specified. Two nests may be separated by a distance.

The intensity of attraction or repulsion is measured by


where n is a measure of the number of particles and N is a measure of the spatial polarity.


Title: An electromagnetic universe.

Author: --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 21:34, 21 May 2015 (UTC)


Electromagnetism that includes the strong interaction and the weak interaction, with gravity a special case of moderated electromagnetism can explain all the properties of our universe.


Which came first, space and time, or electromagnetism? Here, electromagnetism in a form that produces gravity, the weak interaction, and the strong interaction came first. Space is produced by the 90° relationship between electric fields and magnetic fields. Empty space does not exist. Time is a dependent variable subject to the local radiation environment.


Sampling a variety of concepts so as to explain them within the construct of the cosmogony has been performed.

In essence, the smallest unit of electromagnetism is a chargon. An interaction of chargons may produce a spinon (a dependent construct).

Beginnings and ends are described as perhaps unknown or uncountable but produceable.

The speed of light is subject to the local situation.


The concept of a particle is similar to the two-dimensional problem of particles. Here, they can be almost a point source, like the particle-wave duality for photons.

Beginnings and ends, equilibrium, accelerated expansion or contraction can be locally generated.

A medium of electromagnetism is likely to be open-ended regarding travel across uncountable space.

Specific calculations such as the number of photons in a uranium atom may be approximated perhaps by the number of chargons or electrons (positrons) needed to build one.


Specific formulations for all manifestations of electromagnetism may be derivable from one general form. The universe is simply electromagnetism everywhere there is a universe.


To assess your cosmogony, including your justification, analysis and discussion, I will provide such an assessment of my example for comparison. The concept of a tachyonic particle is left undescribed.


No equations have been produced by which this cosmogony can be tested or evaluated. The key requirement of any cosmogony even if it fails is that it is testable. The concept of particles needs to be better differentiated from the current theoretical physics concept by the same name.


  1. While a 3D universe can be created by electric and magnetic fields at 90° to each other, the spaceness may be inherent in the fields themselves rather than independent.
  2. Propagation or radiation is a function of interference and disinterference.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

The best way to ruin a good creation is to make the creator read something first.

External linksEdit

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}{{Charge ontology}}