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Computer Architecture Lab/WS2007/diogenes instruction example

Diogenes Assembler ExamplesEdit

The Bootloader Used to Load User ProgramsEdit

  @ l0 : temp
  @ l1 : constant 1
  @ l2 : current address for memwrites
  @ l3 : temp, holds the value received from uart
  @ h1 : toggle bit = 0 zero, when a full 16 Bit word was received
  @ h2 : holds the bitmask of the invalid instruction 0xffff = special with
  @ l4 : temp, used for branch condition
  
  80:
  ldi   l2, 0x80
  lsi   l2, 0x40     @ start of user program
  
  ldi   h2, 0xff     
  lsi   h2, 0xff     @ h2 = 0xffff  
  
  ldi   l1, 1        @ constant 1
  ldi   h1, 0        @ toggle bit (hi low)
  stio  h2, [h1]     @ leds echo
  
  
  1: @ wait for byte
  ldi   l0, 0x80     @ uart status address
  ldio  l3, [l0]
  ldi   h0, 2        @ uart data ready bit
  and   l4, l3, h0
  brz   l4, :1
  ldi   h0, 0x81     @ uart data address
  
  
  ldio  l3, [h0]     @ uart rcv
  xor   h1, h1, l1   @ toggle state (16 bit Ready)
  stio  l3, [h0]     @ uart echo (uart should be ready at this point)
  ldi   h0, 0x00     @ leds address
  stio  l3, [h0]     @ leds echo
  brz   h1, :2  
  nop                @ hier könnte leds echo sein (nop wegen evtl.  Simulator bug)
  
  
  @ olny first half (LSB) of instruction was received  
  brnz  h1, :1
  mov   h3, l3       @ h3: holds 16-bit instr (here LSB are set)  
  
  
  2: @ full 16-Bit instruction is ready
  shi   l3, 8        @ move received 8 bits
  or    h3, h3, l3   @ merge the two instructionbytes 
  stio  h3, [l2]     @ write instruction to programm-mem
  xor   l4, h3, h2   @ check if the instruction writen to pmem is 0xffff  
  brnz  l4, :1
  adi   l2, 1        @ increase program-write address	
  
  @@ programm loaded
  
  @ jump to begin of loaded program
  ldi   l0, 0x40
  jump  <l0>
  nop

Sieve of EratosthenesEdit

    ldi    l7, 30   @ All prime numbers smaller than 30
    mov    l5, l7
    stio   l5, [l5]
    ldi    l4, 0
    ldi    l0, 0
    ldi    l1, 1
  1:
    st     l0, [l4]
    adi    l4, 1
    brnz   l5, :1
    adi    l5, -1
    ldi    l4, 2
    mov    l5, l7
  2:
    mov    l2, l4
  3:
    add    l2, l2, l4
    cmpl   l6, l2, l5
    brz    l6, :4
    nop
    brnz   l6, :3
    st     l1, [l2]
  4:
    adi    l4, 1
    nop
    cmpl   l3, l5, l4
    brnz   l3, :10
    ld     l3, [l4]
    nop
    brnz   l3, :4
    nop
    brz    l3, :2
    nop
  10:
    ldi    l3, 1
  11:
    adi    l3, 1
    cmpl   l4, l3, l7
    brz    l4, :99
    ld     l5, [l3]
    nop
    brnz   l5, :11
    nop
    nop
    ldi    h4, 0x1
    lsi    h4, 0
    lsi    h4, 0
    ldi    h1, 0
    stio   l3, [l0]
    lsi    h4, 0
  32:
    cmpl   h0, h1, h4
    brnz   h0, :32
    adi    h1, 1
    brz    h0, :11
    nop
  99:
    brnz   l1, :99
    nop
    stop

Running LEDsEdit

  ldi    l0, 0
  stio   l0, [l0]     @ clear leds
  
  1:
  ldi    h0, 0x1
  ldi    l0, 7
  10:
  ldi    h1, 0
  stio   h0, [h1]     @ write leds
  nop
  adi    l0, -1
  LDL    h5, :delay   @ load function address (is decomposed to 4 machine instructions)
  call   h6, <h5>     @ call function and save return address to h6
  nop
  brnz   l0, :10
  shi    h0, 1        @ shift left
  ldi    l0, 7
  20:
  ldi    h1, 0
  stio   h0, [h1]     @ write leds
  nop
  adi    l0, -1
  LDL    h5, :delay
  call   h6, <h5>
  nop
  brnz   l0, :20
  shi    h0, -1       @ shift right
  brz    l0, :1
  nop
  
  delay:              @ delay function
  ldi    l1, 0x1f
  lsi    l1, 0
  lsi    l1, 0
  delay_l:
  brnz   l1, :delay_l
  adi    l1, -1
  jump   <h6>         @ return
  nop
  stop

Snake GameEdit

 

  @ l7: stack
  @ l6: push_function
  @ l0: return address of leavfuction (push pop im speziell)
    stio l0, [l0]
    LDL l0, :start
    LDL l6, :push
  
    ldi l7, 0x03
    jump <l0>
    lsi l7, 0xfE
  
  push:
    st  h7, [l7]
    adi l7, -1
    st  h1, [l7]
    adi l7, -1
    st  h2, [l7]
    adi l7, -1
    st  h3, [l7]
    adi l7, -1
    st  h4, [l7]
    adi l7, -1
    st  h5, [l7]
    adi l7, -1
    st  h6, [l7]
    adi l7, -1
    st  h0, [l7]
    jump <l0>
    adi l7, -1
  
  pop:
    adi l7, 1
    ld  h0, [l7]
    adi l7, 1
    ld  h6, [l7]
    adi l7, 1
    ld  h5, [l7]
    adi l7, 1
    ld  h4, [l7]
    adi l7, 1
    ld  h3, [l7]
    adi l7, 1
    ld  h2, [l7]
    adi l7, 1
    ld  h1, [l7]
    adi l7, 1
    ld  h7, [l7]
    nop
    nop
    jump <h0>
    nop
  
  
  start:
  
  @ initialize vmem
    LDL   h4, :set_tile
    ldi   l3, 59     @ max y
    hloop:
      ldi   l2, 79     @ max x
    pixloop:
      call  h0, <h4>
      ldi   l1, 0x5b
  
    brnz  l2, :pixloop
    adi   l2, -1
    brnz  l3, :hloop
    adi   l3, -1
  
  
    @ draw "3D" borders
    ldi h6, 55
    ldi h7, 0xc1
    lsi h7, 0x02
    LDL h3, :border
    call h0, <h3>
    ldi h4, 55
  
    ldi h6, 6
    ldi h7, 0xc1
    lsi h7, 0x3C
    call h0, <h3>
    ldi h4, 17
  
    ldi h7, 0xc5
    call h0, <h3>
    lsi h7, 0x3C 
  
    ldi h7, 0xc9
    call h0, <h3>
    lsi h7, 0x3C 
  
    ldi h7, 0xcd
    call h0, <h3>
    lsi h7, 0x3C
  
    ldi h6, 17
    ldi h7, 0xd4
    call h0, <h3>
    lsi h7, 0x3C
  
    @ draw static text
    ldi l0, 0xcA
    lsi l0, 0x44
    ldi l1, 0x57 @ X
    stio l1, [l0]
    ldi l0, 0xcE
    lsi l0, 0x44
    ldi l1, 0x58 @ Y
    stio l1, [l0]
  
    @ LEVEL
    ldi l0, 0xc2
    lsi l0, 0x42
    ldi l1, 0x47 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x55 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x47 
    stio l1, [l0]
  
    @ LEVEL
    ldi l0, 0xc6
    lsi l0, 0x42
    ldi l1, 0x38 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4b 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x47 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0xec
    stio l1, [l0]
  
    @ Andreas
    ldi l0, 0xD5
    lsi l0, 0x3e
    ldi l1, 0x38 @ A
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x49
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3b
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4d
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x38
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4e
    stio l1, [l0] 
  
    @ David
    ldi l0, 0xD8
    lsi l0, 0x3e
    ldi l1, 0x3B @ D
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x38
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x55
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x44
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3b
    stio l1, [l0]
  
    @ Fellnhofer
    ldi l0, 0xD5
    lsi l0, 0xc1
    ldi l1, 0x3D 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x47
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x49
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3f
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4a
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3d
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4d
    stio l1, [l0] 
  
    @ Rigler
    ldi l0, 0xD8
    lsi l0, 0xc1
    ldi l1, 0x4d
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x44
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3e
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x47
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4d
    stio l1, [l0] 
  
    @ &
    ldi l0, 0xD7
    lsi l0, 0x44
    ldi l1, 0x5c
    stio l1, [l0]
  
  
    @ Diogenes
    ldi l0, 0xDB
    lsi l0, 0x3e
    ldi l1, 0x3b 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x44
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4a
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3e
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x49
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4e
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 2
    ldi l1, 0x66
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x64
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x64
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x6c
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
  
  
    @ initialize snake
    ldi   h3, 0x10
    lsi   h3, 0x10
    ldi   h1, 8
  
    @ first apple
    ldi   h6, 16
    lsi   h6, 40
  
    @ intitially nothing to grow
    ldi   h7, 0
  
    l0:
      st    h3, [h1]
      brnz  h1, :l0
      adi   h1, -1
  
      ldi   h1, 8     @ head != tail to avoid early gameover
      adi   h3, 1
      st    h3, [h1]
  
      ldi   h1, 7
      ldi   h2, 0
  
      LDL   h3, :delay
      LDL   h5, :update
  
      ldi   l0, 0x00       @ loop expects key input in r0
  
  
  loop:
    @ldi   l0, 0x00        @simulator: 0x81
    @ldio  l0, [l0]
    ldi   l1, 0x01
    and   l2, l0, l1     @ select bit for right
    sub   h2, h2, l2     @ add bit to direction
    shi   l0, -1         @ shift input
    and   l2, l0, l1
    add   h2, h2, l2     @ add bit to direction
    stio  h2, [l0]
   
   
    @ check for game over
    adi  l1, h1, 1
    ld   l1, [l1]
    ldi   l0, 0xff
    lsi   l0, 0xff  
    and  l1, l1, l0
    mov  l2, h1
    adi  l2, -2
  
  collcheck:
    ld   l4, [l2]
    nop
    and  l4, l4, l0
    xor  l4, l4, l1
    brnz l4, :nocoll
    nop
  
    @ GAME OVER
    ldi l0, 0xce
    lsi l0, 0x19
    ldi l1, 0x3e 
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x38
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x48
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c
    stio l1, [l0]
    adi l0, 2
    ldi l1, 0x4a
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x55
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x3c
    stio l1, [l0] 
    adi l0, 1
    ldi l1, 0x4d
    stio l1, [l0] 
  
  
  no_key_pressed:
    call  h0, <h3>       @ call delay
    ldi   l1, 30
    brz   l0, :no_key_pressed
    nop 
  
  
    LDL   l0, :start
    jump  <l0>
    nop
  
  nocoll:
    brnz l2, :collcheck
    adi  l2, -1
  
  
  
  
    @ check for apple
    adi   l1, h1, 1
    ld    l1, [l1]
    ldi   l0, 0xff
    lsi   l0, 0xff
    xor   l1, l1, h6  
    and   l1, l1, l0
    brnz  l1, :no_apple
    nop
    adi   h7, 8       @ grow by 8 for each apple
  
  
    @ FIXME: use random values 
    ldi   l4, 53
    add   l0, h6, l4      
    shi   h0, l0, -2
    add   l0, l0, h1
  
  rand1:
    sub   l0, l0, l4
    cmpl  l1, l0, l4
    brz   l1, :rand1
    nop
  
  rand2:
    sub   h0, h0, l4
    cmpl  l1, h0, l4
    brz   l1, :rand2
    nop
  
    adi   h0, 3
    adi   l0, 3
    mov   h6, l0
    shi   h6, 8
    or    h6, h6, h0     
  
  
  no_apple:
    ldi   l0, 0
    cmpl  h4, l0, h7
    sub   h7, h7, h4  
  
    @ draw apple
    ldi l0, 0xff
    and l2, h6, l0
    mov l3, h6
    shi l3, -8
    LDL l0, :set_tile
    call h0, <l0>
    ldi l1, 0x06   @ apple
  
  
    @@ display level, apples
    LDL   l0, :print_val
    ldi l4, 0xc7
    mov l5, h1
    shi l5, -3
    call  h0, <l0>
    lsi l4, 0x43
      
    LDL   l0, :print_val
    ldi l4, 0xc3
    mov l5, h1
    shi l5, -6
    call  h0, <l0>
    lsi l4, 0x43
  
  
    call h0, <h5>      @ call update
    mov  l1, h2
  
    add   h1, h1, h4
  
    ldi   l1, 20       @ 2^20 steps
    mov   l2, h1
    shi   l2, -6
    shi   l2, 1
    call  h0, <h3>     @ call delay
    sub   l1, l1, l2
  
  
    brnz  h5, :loop
    nop
  
  
  update:
    call l0, <l6>
    nop
  
    brz   h4, :no_grow    @ if snake does not grow
    mov   l0, h1
    adi   l0, 2
    adi   h1, 1
    ld    l1, [h1]        @ if snake grows
    nop
    brnz  h4, :cloope
    mov   l2, h1
  
  no_grow:
    ldi   l0, 0
    ld    l1, [l0]
  
    @ extract tile,y,x  (l1=tile, l2=x, l3=y)
    ldi   l4, 0xff
    and   l2, l1, l4
    shi   l1, -8
    and   l3, l1, l4
    ldi   l1, 0x1b
  
    LDL   l0, :set_tile
    call  h0, <l0>
    nop
  
    ldi   l0, 0
    ldi   l2, 1
  
  cloop:
    ld    l1, [l2]      @ src
    adi   l2, 1         @ src + 1
    st    l1, [l0]      @ dst
    cmpl  l3, l0, h1    @ until dst=highest address)
    brnz  l3, :cloop
    adi   l0, 1         @ dst + 1
  cloope:
  
    ldi   l5, 3
    and   h2, h2, l5    @ trunc direction
  
    @ extract tile,y,x  (l1=tile, l2=x, l3=y)
    ldi   l4, 0xff
    and   l2, l1, l4
    shi   l1, -8
    and   l3, l1, l4
  
    shi   l1, -8        @ old direction
    shi   l1, 4         @ old direction << 2
    or    l1, l1, h2    @  00OO 00NN (old new combination)
    adi   l1, 4
  
    mov   h5, l0
    mov   h6, l2
    mov   h7, l3
  
    LDL   l4, :set_tile
    call  h0, <l4>
    nop
    mov   l0, h5
    mov   l2, h6
    mov   l3, h7
  
  down:
    xor   l4, h2, l5
    brnz  l4, :up
    nop
    adi   l3, 1
    ldi   l1, 8
  up:
    ldi   l5, 1
    xor   l4, h2, l5
    brnz  l4, :right
    nop
    adi   l3, -1
    ldi   l1, 9
  right:
    brnz  h2, :left
    ldi   l5, 2
    adi   l2, 1
    ldi   l1, 10
  left:
    xor   l4, h2, l5
    brnz  l4, :end_key
    nop
    adi   l2, -1
    ldi   l1, 11
  end_key:
  
    @ check for borders and wrap around
    ldi h0, 3
    cmpl l5, l2, h0
    brz l5, :b2
    nop
    ldi l2, 56
  b2:
    cmpl l5, l3, h0
    brz l5, :b3
    nop
    ldi l3, 56
  b3:
    ldi h0, 56
    cmpl l5, h0, l2
    brz l5, :b4
    nop
    ldi l2, 3
  b4:
    cmpl l5, h0, l3
    brz l5, :bend
    nop
    ldi l3, 3
  bend:
  
    mov   l4, h2
    shi   l4, 8
    or    l4, l4, l3
    shi   l4, 8
    or    l4, l4, l2
    st    l4, [l0]       @ write new head
  
    @@ keep x,y values
    mov   h2, l2
    mov   h3, l3
  
    LDL   l0, :set_tile
    call  h0, <l0>
    nop
  
    @@ display x,y values
    LDL   h4, :print_val
  
    ldi l4, 0xcb
    mov l5, h2
    adi l5, -3
    call  h0, <h4>
    lsi l4, 0x43
  
    ldi l4, 0xcf
    mov l5, h3
    adi l5, -3
    call  h0, <h4>
    lsi l4, 0x43
  
  
    ldi   l0, 0
    ld    l1, [l0]
    @ extract tail tile,y,x  (l1=tile, l2=x, l3=y)
    ldi   l4, 0xff
    and   l2, l1, l4
    shi   l1, -8
    and   l3, l1, l4
    ldi   l0, 1
    ld    l1, [l0]
    nop
    shi   l1, -16        @ old direction
    adi   l1, 0x0c
  
    LDL   l0, :set_tile
    call  h0, <l0>
    nop
  
    adi  h6, l6, 17
    jump <h6>
    nop
  
  
  set_stile:
    call l0, <l6>
    nop
  
    ldi  l0, 0xff
    and  l2, l1, l0
    shi  l1, -8
    and  l3, l1, l0
  
    LDL  h4, :set_tile
    call h0, <h4>
    shi  l1, -8
  
    adi  h6, l6, 17
    jump <h6>
    nop
  
  
  set_tile:
    call l0, <l6>
    nop
    ldi   l4, 0xc0   @ vmem starts at 0xc000
    shi   l4, 8
    shi   h3, l3, 7
    add   l0, l2, h3
    add   l0, l0, l4
    stio  l1, [l0]
    adi  h6, l6, 17
    jump <h6>
    nop
  
  delay:
    call l0, <l6>
    nop
    mov   l2, l1
    shi   l2, 16
    ldi   l4, 0xff
    shi   l4, 10
    ldi   l1, 0
    ldi   l0, 0
  delay_loop:
    ldio  l3, [l1]
    ldi   l5, 0x0B              @ filter left, right, switch
    and   l3, l3, l5
    brz   l3, :goon
    nop
    brnz  l4, :goon2
    adi   l4, -1
    mov   l0, l3
  goon:
    ldi   l4, 0xff
    shi   l4, 10
  goon2:
    brnz  l2, :delay_loop
    adi   l2, -1
    adi  h6, l6, 17
    jump <h6>
    nop
  
  print_val:
    call l0, <l6>
    nop
  
    ldi h1, 100
    pre_loop:
    ldi h0, 0x63
    add l5,l5,h1
    count_loop:
    sub l5,l5,h1
    cmpl l0, l5, h1
    brz l0, :count_loop
    adi h0, 1
    stio h0, [l4]
    adi l4, 1
    ldi l0, 10
    xor l0,l0,h1
    brnz l0, :pre_loop
    ldi h1, 10
    ldi h0, 0x64
    add h0, h0, l5
    stio h0, [l4]
  
  
    adi  h6, l6, 17
    jump <h6>
    nop
  
  border:
    call l0, <l6> 
    nop
  
    shi   h6, 7
    ldi   h5, 0x17
  fory:
    mov  l4, h4
    adi l5, h5, 2
  forx:
    add l3, h7, l4
    add l3,l3, h6
    stio  l5, [l3]
    adi l5, h5, 1
    brnz l4, :forx
    adi l4, -1
    stio h5, [l3]
    ldi l0,0x1d
    xor l0, l0, h5
    brz l0, :end_border
    ldi h5, 0x1a
    ldi l0, 0x80
    sub h6,h6,l0
    brnz h6, :fory
    nop
    brnz l0, :fory
    ldi h5, 0x1d
  
  end_border:
    adi  h6, l6, 17
    jump <h6>
    nop
  
  
stop