Although they do not occur naturally on the surface of the Earth, the phase diagram on the right shows temperatures and pressures for α-F (monoclinic) and β-F (cubic).
Fluorine has green emission lines that occur in plasmas at 526.83, 528.56, 529.76 and 530.27 nm from F VI.
The emission and absorption spectra of fluorine contains at least eight lines or bands from the cyan to the ultraviolet.
The set of images on the right compare the color of air (1) with fluorine (2) and chlorine (3) gases.
Liquid fluorine in the tube on the right is yellow-orange in color.
"Variations in sea-surface temperature (SST) occur in association with changes in the Earth's climate. [...] However, despite a large effort, the glacial record of SST is still controversial, especially in the tropics. [Studies] of foraminifera demonstrated that the interspecific variability in Mg/Ca ratios of planktonic shells is strongly correlated with water temperature at the estimated calcification depth [...] Similar correlations were also observed Sr/Ca and F/Ca [...] possibly suggesting an important role for temperature on the elemental composition of foraminifera. [...] F/Ca of foraminafera is governed primarily by biological processes."
"Fluorine abundances for red giants of type K, Ba, M, MS, S, SC,N, and J [may be] obtained from the [infrared] rotation-vibration lines of the molecule HF. There appears to be a clear correlation between [F/O] and 12C/16O since N stars display F abundances up to 30 times the solar system value. This correlation points toward the He-burning shell as the site of F synthesis. The nuclear chain 14N(α,γ)18F(β+)18O(p,α)15N(α,γ)19F (where protons come from 13C(α,n)16O followed by 14N(n,p)14C) operating at the very beginning of He-burning is the most likely for 19F production in thermal pulses."
- Chemicals/Reactions/Oxidation numbers
- K. J. McCarthy; A. Baciero; B. Zurro; TJ-II Team (12 June 2000). Impurity Behaviour Studies in the TJ-II Stellarator, In: 27th EPS Conference on Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys.. 24B. Budapest: ECA. pp. 1244-7. http://crpppc42.epfl.ch/Buda/pdf/p3_116.pdf. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Alex Petty (July 2007). Fluorine light signature. alexpetty.com. http://www.alexpetty.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Figure-9.-The-light-signature-of-Fluorine.png. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- Yair Rosenthal; Edward A. Boyle; Niall Slowey (1997). "Temperature control on the incorporation of magnesium, strontium, fluorine, and cadmium into benthic foraminiferal shells from Little Bahama Bank: Prospects for thermocline paleoceanography". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (17): 3633-43. http://boyle.mit.edu/~ed/PDFs/Rosenthal(1997)GCA.pdf. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
- A. Jorissen; V.V. Smith; D.L. Lambert (July 1992). "Fluorine in red giant stars: evidence for nucleosynthesis". Astronomy and Astrophysics 261 (1): 164-87. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992A&A...261..164J. Retrieved 2013-08-01.