The Rise and Fall of NapoleonEdit
1. What allowed Napoleon to rise to power? French Revolution
2. Napoleon lead the French army against Austria and Sardinia, and then invaded Egypt.
3. Why did Napoleon invade Egypt? To disrupt England's trade
4. While in Egypt, one of Napoleon’s soldiers found a stone which allowed archaeologists to decipher hieroglyphics, the Rosetta Stone.
5. When Napoleon returned to France, the last government of the French Revolution was losing control of France. Napoleon overthrew the Directory.
6. What method did Napoleon use to overthrow the Directory? Coup d'etat
7. At the time of Napoleon’s take over, France is still at war with Britian, Austria and Russia. However, this fighting ends by 1802 and Europe is at peace.
8. When the people vote “yes” or “no” on an issue, this is called a plebiscite.
9. What are some things that Napoleon does to gain the support of the French people?
- Set up a tax collection system and national bank
- Removed corrupt officials
- Set up lycees, government run public schools
- Louisiana Purchase
10. What was Napoleon’s most important and lasting contribution? Napoleonic Code. It limited liberty but provided order and authority. It also restricted freedom of speech and press.
11. In 1804 after a plebiscite (people-approved voting) Napoleon became emperor.
12. Emperor Napoleon now set out to accomplish his goal: New World territories.
13. Which country was his primary obstacle? England
14. Napoleon’s combo French-Spanish navy was defeated by the British navy at the Battle of Trafalgar (Oct. 1805).
15. What was the significance of the Battle of Trafalgar?
- Assured the power of Britian navy for the next century.
- Made Napoleon give up his desire of invading Britian.
16. Napoleon is now forced to go to “Plan B”: the Continental System. If Napoleon could not defeat the British, he would attempt to prevent them from trading with the rest of Europe.
The British retaliated with their own blockade of the European Continent. Who is hurt more, France or England? France
17. Napoleon then lost control of Spain and Portugal. This is known as the Peninsular War.
18. Napoleon lost the Peninsular Campaign (Wars) because the Portuguese and Spanish used guerilla warfare. They also received help from the English, who had defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
19. Napoleon gives it one more try and decides to invade Russia in May, 1812. His Grand Army is made up of more than 440,000 soldiers that were drafted from all over Europe. How loyal are these soldiers? Not very loyal
20. When Napoleon’s army reaches Russia’s capital, Moscow, his soldiers find that the Russians have set it afire.
21. What are the reasons that Napoleon was defeated in Russia (BTW: Hitler did not learn these and made the same mistakes!)
a. burn anything your enemy can use
b. guerilla tactics/warfare
c. pull your enemy in deeply where his supply lines cannot reach him
d. the Russian Campaign
22. Napoleon’s retreating army is defeated at the Battle of the Nations (Battle of Leipzig) by
a. Austrian forces
b. Prussian forces
c. Russian forces
d. Swedish forces
e. German forces
23. What was Napoleon’s punishment for keeping Europe in turmoil? He was banished to Elba.
24. Who was restored to the throne of France? Louis XVIII 25. What dynasty is he a member of? Bourboun
26. Napoleon is not content to spend the rest of his life on the island of Elba.
He escapes and returns to France on March 1, 1815.
27. Napoleon’s last attempt to rule France is referred to as the Battle of Waterloo.
28. What is the name of Napoleon’s last defeat? Hundred Days
This time Napoleon is exiled to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic.
29. What is Napoleon’s legacy?
a. Napoleon Code
b. École Polytechnique
c. St. Cyr
The Congress of ViennaEdit
1. After Napoleon is first defeated and sent to Elba, a meeting begins in Vienna, Austria. What is the purpose of this meeting?
To restore Europe prior to the French Revolution
2. Who were the four “Great Powers” and why are they called this?
Called 5 great powers because they were the most powerful in the World back then.
3. Who was the representative from Austria and also the leader of the Congress?
Klemens von Metternich
4. What were the three goals of the Congress of Vienna?
Balance of Power
a. surround France with strong nations to maintain peace b. Legitamacy: restore as many monarchs to power as possible c. compensation: France pays for war expenses of those who defeated her
5. After France is returned to its former status, the Quadruple Alliance (England, Prussia, Austria, Russia) becomes the Holy Alliance, an alliance in which member nations would help one another if revolutions broke out
6. As a result of the French Revolution two new political philosophies appear:
Liberals want to share power with elected governments. They want to give the middle class the right to vote, but no one below them!
Conservatives want to keep the traditional monarchies of Europe. Most of these people were from the higher class.