Subatomic astronomy is a lecture and an article from the astronomy department. It is under development for possible inclusion in the course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

This is an image obtained from muon radiography of Japan's Asama volcano. Credit: H T M Tanaka.

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## Quiz

1 True or False, An antimuon is a muon spinning backward in time.

 TRUE FALSE

2 Complete the text:

 Bombardment by protostellar may make the rock of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and chondrules radioactive, producing found in meteorites that are difficult to obtain with other mechanisms.

3 True or False, Like all elementary particles, the meson has a corresponding antiparticle of opposite spin but equal mass and charge.

 TRUE FALSE

4 Ionization within the Earth's atmosphere from cosmic rays has what property?

 it's subject to solar eclipses it increases underwater cosmic rays do not penetrate the atmosphere is higher at the base of the Eiffel tower rather than the top is obscured by hot-air balloons the ionization rate rises at rising elevation

5 True or False, The radius of the proton is 4 percent smaller than previously estimated.

 TRUE FALSE

6 Which of the following are associated with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory?

 under ice the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station Digital Optical Modules the counting house is on the surface above the array the baryon neutrino the electron neutrino

7 True or False, In the sky as seen by AMANDA-II the downgoing atmospheric muon background is responsible for the thick band of events below the horizon.

 TRUE FALSE

8 What negatively charged particles may be used as tracers of cosmic magnetic fields?

9 Complete the text:

 Charged-current charged pion production is a process in which a interacts with an atomic and produces a , a charged and recoiling nuclear fragments.

10 TeV muons from gamma-ray primaries are rare because?

 only produced by higher energy gamma rays suppressed gamma-ray flux decreasing flux at the source GeV gamma rays absorption interstellar light

11 True or False, Due to the limited shielding provided by its relatively weak magnetic dipole moment, the surface of Mercury is everywhere subject to bombardment by cosmic rays.

 TRUE FALSE

12 Which of the following are associated with electromagnetics?

 angular momentum transfer solar wind protons electrons the baryon neutrino charge neutralization

13 Complete the text:

 The nuclear processes that produce cosmogenic 36Cl in rocks are , neutron , and capture.

14 True or False, Van Allen radiation belt electrons are constantly removed by collisions with atmospheric neutrals, losses to the magnetopause, and outward radial diffusion.

 TRUE FALSE

15 What are some of the characteristics of Jovian electrons?

 hard spectrum Jovian electrons near Earth are on their way to the Sun an energy power law flux increases with 27 day periodicities at 1 AU, flux decreases exhibit a short-term modulation of 13 minutes come in mutable varieties

16 Which of the following is not characteristic of a neutrino?

 neutrinos are affected by the weak nuclear force produced by a positron annihilating an electron a decay product of a neutron produced by the near surface fusion on the Sun may have a mass comes in mutable varieties

17 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Gamma rays - G Superluminals - H X-ray jets the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency . iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium . Sagittarius X-1 . escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary . collisions with argon atoms . X-rays are emitted as they slow down . Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra .

18 A cosmic ray may originate from what astronomical source?

 Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt an active galactic nucleus

19 The relative abundances of solar cosmic rays reflect those of the solar

20 Complete the text:

 Cosmic rays with energies over the energy of 5 x 1019 interact with photons to produce via the ${\displaystyle \Delta }$  resonance.

21 True or False, Mesons inherit the high energy of the parent cosmic rays.

 TRUE FALSE

22 Complete the text:

 Muons are produced, along with other particles, when interact with in the Earth's atmosphere to produce of secondary particles.

23 Which of the following are associated with muon astronomy?

 high-energy cosmic rays secondary and tertiary cosmic rays nuclear interactions between neutrons and quartz nuclear interactions between muons and calcite production rates of a few atoms per gram of rock per year build-up of cosmogenic nuclides through time

## Hypotheses

1. Subatomics astronomy should help determine where in the solar octant neutrinos are being generated.