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Radiation astronomy/Courses/Principles/Hourly 2

The ALMA observations — shown here in red, pink and yellow — were tuned to detect carbon monoxide molecules. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO). Visible light image: the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.

Principles of radiation astronomy is a course of forty-eight lectures, sixteen mini-lectures for quiz sections, three hourly quizzes that are timed at an hour, a mid-term that covers the first half of the course, and a final which covers everything in the course. This is the second of three hourlies. It covers the second sixteen lectures, the second five mini-lectures, problem sets, lessons, and laboratories.

You are free to take this quiz based on these at any time.

To improve your score, read and study the lectures and the rest, the links contained within, listed under See also, External links, and in the {{principles of radiation astronomy}} template. This should give you adequate background to get 100 %.

As a "learning by doing" resource, this quiz helps you to assess your knowledge and understanding of the information, and it is a quiz you may take over and over as a learning resource to improve your knowledge, understanding, test-taking skills, and your score.

Suggestion: Have the lecture available in a separate window.

To master the information and use only your memory while taking the quiz, try rewriting the information from more familiar points of view, or be creative with association.

Enjoy learning by doing!

QuizEdit







  

1

Complete the text:

Ordinary glass is partially

to UVA but is

to shorter wavelengths, whereas silica or

glass, depending on quality, can be

even to vacuum UV wavelengths.

2

Complete the text:

Match up the description with each of the optical astronomy possibilities below:
Palomar's 5 m - L
adaptive optics poc - M
AO actuators - N
Mars Global Surveyor - O
star-forming region - P
Warner & Swasey - Q
protoplanetary nebula - R
SkyMapper - S
Mauna Kea - T
full-color of Mercury - U
Hubble Space Telescope of carbon star - V
supernova remnant - W
HESS - X
line of sight - Y

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3

The MINOS experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos, that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the?

4

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
E0 - A
E1 - B
E2 - C
E3 - D
E4 - E
E5 - F
E6 - G
E7 - H

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at left

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5

Which of the following are associated with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory?

under ice
the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
Digital Optical Modules
the counting house is on the surface above the array
the baryon neutrino
the electron neutrino

6

True or False, Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes pose a challenge to current theories of lightning, especially with the discovery of the clear signatures of neutrinos produced in lightning.

TRUE
FALSE

7

Which of the following are the differences between a star and an astronomical yellow source?

a star may emit predominantly green rays
an astronomical yellow source is spherical
a yellow star is an astronomical yellow source
a star with nuclear fusion in its chromosphere emits neutrinos, but a yellow source with no nuclear fusion ongoing does not
a yellow source may be cloud like
an astronomical yellow source may be a rocky object

8

Complete the text:

Match up the theoretical astronomy idea with each of the possibilities below:
astronomical object - A
astronomical source - B
astronomical entity - C
star - D
interstellar medium - E
material - F
natural luminous body visible in the sky

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naturally from which something comes

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matter which may be shaped or manipulated

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an independent, separate, or self-contained existence

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the matter that exists in the space between the star systems

naturally in the sky especially at night

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9

Helium has emission lines in which of the following colors?

violet
blue
cyan
green
yellow
orange
red

10

A cosmic ray may originate from what astronomical source?

Jupiter
the solar wind
the diffuse X-ray background
Mount Redoubt in Alaska
the asteroid belt
an active galactic nucleus

11

True or False, Any small luminous green dot appearing in the cloudless portion of the night sky, especially with a fixed location relative to other such dots is most likely to be an active galactic nucleus.

TRUE
FALSE

12

Which of the following are green radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

the color of the upper rim as seen from Earth
an excess brightness at or near the edge of the Sun
the iron XIV green line
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
changes in the line-blanketing

13

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Intracluster medium - A
Mayall's object - B
M82 PAHs - C
Milky Way bubbles - D
Local Hot Bubble - E
Stephan's Quintet - F
UGC 8335 - G
Arp 272 - H

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14

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position
temperatures at or above 1 MK

15

ANTARES is the name of a neutrino detector designed to be used as a directional Neutrino Telescope residing under the

16

A NASA Hubble image of the Ring Nebula contains which of the following?

very hot helium blue
ionized oxygen emitting green
red light from ionized nitrogen
oxygen forbidden line emission
a forbidden line of sulfur

17

True or False, As a galaxy is made up of millions or billions of stars, a solitary star does not exist in a galaxy.

TRUE
FALSE

18

Complete the text:

Match up the letter of the spherical object with each of the possibilities below:
Sun - A
Mercury - B
Venus - C
Earth - D
Moon - E
Mars - F
Ceres - G
Jupiter - H
Callisto - I
Europa - J
Ganymede - K
Io - L
Enceladus - M
Titan - N
Uranus - O
Titania - P
Neptune - Q
Triton - R
Pluto - S

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19

Various gaps and density minima have been observed in the Saturnian

system.

20

Which of the following are phenomena associated with electromagnetic cascades?

spectral and timing properties of astronomical sources
very high-energy γ-rays
the way from the source to the Earth
soft X-rays
redshifts
ambient radiation fields inside the γ-ray source
source stability
protons

21

Intragalactic super soft X-ray sources may be heavily reddened by?

22

True or False, "Regarding the fixed stars, the Sun appears from Earth to revolve once a year along the ecliptic through the zodiac".

TRUE
FALSE

23

Which of the following refer to an aspect of current cosmogonic models?

fragmentation of asteroids
accretion
Mars
Jupiter
transformation by accretion
kilometer-size objects
hyperbolic comets
asteroid belt
bodies comparable in size to the Earth

24

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Gamma rays - G
Superluminals - H
X-ray jets

the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency

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iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium

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Sagittarius X-1

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escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary

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collisions with argon atoms

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X-rays are emitted as they slow down

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Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra

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25

True or False, The disparity between the atomic number of an atom and its atomic mass is explained by the existence of the neutrino.

TRUE
FALSE

26

Which of the following are characteristic of a β+ decay?

a mu neutrino
a positron emission
a decay product of a neutron
weak interaction
an electron neutrino
comes in mutable varieties

27

True or False, An antimatter equivalent of an electron having the same charge but a positive mass is called a positron.

TRUE
FALSE

28

Complete the text:

Match up the blue object with the possibilities below:
Sun - H
Mercury - I
Venus - J
Earth - K
Meteorite on Mars - L
Pallas - M
Comet Holmes - N
Europa - O
Io - P
Saturn - Q
Enceladus - R
Tethys - S
Titan - T
Neptune - U
Abell 370 - V
SN 1987A - W
Crab Nebula - X

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29

Which of the following is not characteristic of a neutrino?

neutrinos are affected by the weak nuclear force
produced by a positron annihilating an electron
a decay product of a neutron
produced by the near surface fusion on the Sun
may have a mass
comes in mutable varieties

30

An argon-37 atom is converted by a neutrino by the charged current interaction from what atom?

31

Yes or No, O VI is a lithium-like ion.

Yes
No

32

Which of the following are astronomical observatory phenomena associated with gamma-ray astronomy?

20 MeV electromagnetic radiation
the Second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-2)
micrometre-sized interstellar meteor particles
neutron irradiation
GRBs
meteor orbits
thorium on the Moon

33

Complete the text:

Some neutrinos originating from the Sun may be produced by the

reactions occurring in and above the

. Differentiating these coronal cloud-induced neutrinos from the neutrino background and those theorized to be produced within the

of the Sun may someday be possible with neutrino astronomy.

34

True or False, An antimatter equivalent of a positron having the same mass but a positive charge is called an electron.

TRUE
FALSE

35

Which of the following are characteristic of positronium?

an exotic atom
a nucleus of neutronium
a decay product of a neutron
a weak interaction
an eletromagnetic interaction
a center of mass

36

Observations of Io have benefitted greatly from what phenomenon?

a dense, opaque atmosphere
lightning
extensive meteorite cratering
a flattening out
liquid hydrocarbon lakes
the reflected light of allotropes and compounds of sulfur

37

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the gaseous-object Neptune?

Voyager 2
blue rays
clouds
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
rotation

38

Complete the text:

The First Byurakan Survey commenced in 1965 using the

telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. The purpose of the survey was to find galaxies with an

excess.

39

True or False, The libration of the Moon through at least one full moon and one new moon occurs over the period of one earth month.

TRUE
FALSE

40

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation type with the satellite:
meteor - A
cosmic ray - B
neutral atoms - C
neutron - D
proton - E
electron - F
positron - G
neutrino - H
gamma ray - I
X-ray - J
ultraviolet - K
optical - L
visual - M
violet - N
blue - O
cyan - P
green - Q
yellow - R
orange - S
red - T
infrared - U
submillimeter - V
microwave - W
radio - X
radar - Y
superluminal - Z

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41

Which of the following is associated with Pluto?

a dwarf planet
a member of the Oort belt
the northern polar region has brightened
the southern polar region has darkened
its overall redness has decreased
extreme axial tilt

42

The charge on a planetary dust particle may change with?

43

Random fluctuations in the intensity of radio waves of celestial origin, on a timescale of a few seconds is referred to as interplanetary?

44

Which of the following are characteristic of a binary formed via gravitational fragmentation?

the local Jeans length
the local speed of sound
the mean molecular weight
the electron neutrino
the mean particle density
neutrons

45

True or False, If a positive chargon and a negative chargon interact, a gamma ray without a wavelength results.

TRUE
FALSE

46

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the cosmogonic possibilities below:
interior models of the giant planets - A
high interest for cosmogony, geophysics and nuclear physics - B
hierarchical accumulation - C
clouds and globular clusters - D
cosmic helium abundance - E
deuterium fusion - F
a large deficiency of light elements - G
after galactic sized systems had collapsed - H
the motions of hydrogen

formation of luminous quasars

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stars with an initial mass less than the solar mass

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rotating liquid drops

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primordial is less than 26 per cent

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a solar mixture of elements dominated by hydrogen and helium gas

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around 13 Jupiter masses

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smaller rocky objects

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47

Which of the following are phenomena associated with strong forces in the IGM?

stochastic acceleration
hottest clusters
scaling of the acceleration efficiency with IGM temperature
collisionless IGM
placid magnetic compressions
the smaller the mean free path
cold regions
least effective for inducing the instability

48

Complete the text:

Both

and

powered cataclysmic

have been observed to be X-ray sources.

49

True or False, By crossing symmetry an elastic scattering cross section with a nucleon implies annihilation of dark matter (DM) into hadrons inside the halo, resulting in an anti-proton flux that could be constrained by data from the PAMELA collaboration if one includes a large boost factor necessary to explain the PAMELA excess in the positron fraction.

TRUE
FALSE

50

Which of the following are minerals that can readily or often occur orange, or yellow-orange in color?

orpiment
crocoite
malachite
realgar
magnetite
calcite

51

Complete the text:

The spectral region bounded on the long wavelength side by the atmospheric

absorption and on the short wavelength side by the photoionization of interstellar

is the ultraviolet.

52

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position

53

A gallium detector design converts incoming neutrinos to what element?

54

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Einstein ring - A
stellar nebula - B
Andromeda galaxy - C
Triplet galaxies interacting - D
Hubble galaxies - E
Dark matter halo simulation - F
Fairall 9 (Seyfert galaxy in X-rays) - G
Tycho Brahe observatory, remotely controlled telescope, captured galaxy - H

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55

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a chromosphere which emits neutrinos
coronal loops that are particle accelerator-like
synchrotron radiation
a photosphere
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
a polar temperature inside two radii of 1 MK
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

56

True or False, The temperature for a lightning bolt channel has a peak emittance in the far ultraviolet.

TRUE
FALSE

57

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Neutrinos - G
Muons - H
Gamma rays - I
X-rays - J
Ultraviolet rays - K
Optical rays - L
Visual rays - M
Violet rays - N
Blue rays - O
Cyan rays - P
Green rays - Q
Yellow rays - R
Orange rays - S
Red rays - T
Infrared rays - U
Submillimeter rays - V
Radio rays - W
Superluminal rays - X
multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials

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F547M

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511 keV gamma-ray peak

.
F675W

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broad-band filter centered at 404 nm

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a cloud chamber

.
ring-imaging Cherenkov

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coherers

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effective area is larger by 104

.
F588N

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pyroelectrics

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a blemish about 8,000 km long

.
a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate

.
coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum

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thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals

.
F606W

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aluminum nitride

.
heavy water

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18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm

.
wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO)

.
a recoiling nucleus

high-purity germanium

.
magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions

.
2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons

.

58

Which of the following is not a characteristic of theoretical X-radiation astronomy?

a theory for any natural X-ray source
X-ray generation
theoretical X-ray emission
analytical models
computational numerical simulations

59

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Sa - A
Sb - B
Sc - C
SBa - D
SBb - E
SBc - F
Irr - G
S0 - H

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60

Which of the following are characteristic of the first true astrophysical gamma-ray source?

a strong 2.223 MeV emission line
a solar flare
the formation of deuterium
the electron neutrino
OSO-3
neutrons

61

True or False, Chemical ions above the Earth's atmosphere, moving at very high speeds constitute the interplanetary medium.

TRUE
FALSE

62

Complete the text:

The

series is the series of transitions and resulting ultraviolet emission lines of the

atoms as an electron goes from a high-energy level to an n =

level.

63

Phenomena associated with the Milky Way are?

spiral arms
a spheroidal shape
a standard to differentiate dwarf galaxies
often referred to as the Galaxy
arms of younger stars
contains star clusters
dust lanes
extended red emission (ERE)
a faint galaxy heavy with dark matter may orbit it
larger than the Andromeda galaxy

64

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation object with the likely source:
- L
- M
- N
- O
- P
- Q
- R
- S
- T
a Craters of the Moon volcano

.
violet image of Venus

.
active galactic nuclear region of NGC 5728

.
cosmic-ray bombardment of the Moon's surface

.
blue lights from Io

.
neutrino profile of the solar octant

.
planetary nebula NGC 7048

.
ultraviolet image of the Earth

.
a neutron star in a binary system

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65

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a laboratory on Earth?

a core which emits neutrinos
a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water
electric arcs
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

66

True or False, Star clusters have been discovered to occur outside a galaxy.

TRUE
FALSE

67

When the Earth is viewed from space using X-ray astronomy what characteristic is readily observed?

the magnetic north pole
the Hudson Bay meteorite crater
the South Atlantic Anomaly
the Bermuda Triangle
solar positron events
electrons striking the ionosphere

68

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Hydrogen - H, or D
Helium - He
Lithium - Li
Beryllium - Be
Boron - B
Carbon - C
Nitrogen - N
Oxygen - O
Fluorine - F
Neon - Ne
consumed in chromosphere fusion to produce lithium and neutrinos

.
isotope fusion in the chromosphere producing neutrinos

fusion in the chromosphere producing the most neutrinos

.
a factor of ~200 below meteorite abundance in the Sun's photosphere

.
detected with X-rays on the Moon

.
an organic form detected in Allan Hills 84001 probably from Mars

.
detected marginally on Venus with Chandra

.
found in the X-ray spectra of comets

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consumed to produce beryllium and neutrinos

.
a surface impurity on meteorites

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69

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with an entity?

a thermal plasma mechanism
a close binary
synchrotron radiation
high-density wind extinction
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

70

Complete the text:

Whether the thermal IGM is

or collisionless at scales smaller than the

scale depends on the effect of reduced

that is mediated by the plasma

.

71

True or False, According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus was conceived by Gaia alone, but other sources cite Aether as his father.

TRUE
FALSE

72

Which phenomena are associated with the heliosphere?

a region of space where the interstellar medium is blown away by the solar wind
a bubble in space
virtually all the material emanates from the Sun itself
Voyager 2
Voyager 1
the termination shock

73

Spiral galaxies have which of the following in common?

spiral arms
a spheroidal shape
may appear lenticular
is irregular
arms of younger stars
may contain star clusters
dust lanes

74

True or False, The distribution of gamma-ray bursts is tetratropic.

TRUE
FALSE

75

Which of the following are cold dark matter gamma rays?

expected signal comparable to background
annihilation radiation
a pronounced cosmic-ray halo
difficult to separate from a dark halo
dwarf spheroidals
weakly interacting massless particles

76

Complete the text:

Match up the imaging system letter with the image possibilities below:
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (EGRET) - A
XMM Newton - B
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope - C
Lunar Orbiter Gamma-Ray Spectrometer - D
BATSE - E
Mars Odyssey GRS - F
GLAST - G
Swift (X-ray/Gamma-ray mission) - H

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77

Which of the following is not in the history of neutrino astronomy?

Enrico Fermi coined the term "neutrino"
Wolfgang Pauli postulated the muon neutrino
in the Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment, antineutrinos are created
a hydrogen bubble chamber was used to detect neutrinos
Niels Bohr was opposed to the neutrino interpretation of beta decay
a neutrino hitting a proton is detectable

78

The extent of the Hα absorption trough along the major axes of quenched spirals is what?

more truncated than the distribution of the Hα emission line for H I deficient galaxies
contributed to by the new stellar population
less truncated than the distribution of the Hα emission line for H I deficient galaxies
due to the quenching
disks building up from the outside in

79

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the first astronomical source possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Gamma rays - G
Superluminals - H
cosmic rays

galactic nuclei

.
comets

.
electron-positron annihilation

.
weak force nuclear decay

.
AGNs

.
511 keV photon pair production

.
solar wind

.

80

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Saturn?

X-radiation concentrated near equator
reflection of solar X-rays
aurora
stronger than expected reflected solar X-rays
X-rays from rings
diffuse X-ray background
soft X-ray emission
fluorescence of solar X-rays

81

Complete the text:

Match up the type of Sun system astrogony with each of the possibilities below:
Babylonian epic story of creation - A
a primordial or first Greek god - B
the primeval chaos - C
creation of heaven and earth - D
Greek god personifying the sky - E
Cronus (Saturn) castrating his father - F
separation of the waters by a firmament

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Chaos magno

.
Uranus

.
watery abyss

.
Ouranos

Enuma Elish

.

82

True or False, The observations of planetary motion agree with computed orbits to the accuracy of the observations.

TRUE
FALSE

83

The galaxy image at the right has approximately which type of rotational symmetry?

one-fold - ⊙
two-fold - ⊖
three-fold - ▲
four-fold - ◈
five-fold - ✪
six-fold - ✱

84

True or False, Neutrinos emanate from a neutron star because an atomic nucleus the size hypothesized for a neutron star is unstable and the neutrons decompose giving off neutrinos.

TRUE
FALSE

85

Complete the text:

Match up the object viewed in the ultraviolet with its image:
Sun's chromosphere- L
calcite - M
Venus - N
Jupiter's aurora - O
Jupiter - P
Io - Q
Saturn - R
Betelgeuse - S
Mira - T
LAB-1 - U
Messier 101 - V

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86

The relative abundances of solar cosmic rays reflect those of the solar

87

Which of the following are characteristic of solar proton astronomy?

the solar wind
polar coronal holes
protons originating from the photosphere
the electron neutrino
GOES 11
neutrons

88

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Interstellar comet - A
Neutrals - B
Geminga - C
star formation region - D
Local Hot Bubble - E
H II regions - F
Ring Nebula - G
molecular cloud - H
supernova remnant - I
Messier 17 - J
empty space - K

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89

Pick the characteristics of a gamma-ray burst.

a strong 2.223 MeV emission line
flashes of gamma rays
associated with extremely energetic explosions
most luminous events known
can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes
followed by a longer-lived "afterglow"

90

Which of the following radiation phenomena are associated with the ultraviolet?

He II lines
B I line
Be II lines
carbon III line
Hβ emission
oxygen O I lines

91

Do we know enough about the intergalactic medium to trust measurements of background sources seen through foreground

?

92

True or False, Violet astronomy is the radiation astronomy over the wavelength band 380-450 nm.

TRUE
FALSE

93

Which of the following is characteristic of the scattered disc

a distant region of the solar system
the dwarf planet Eris
orbital eccentricites ranging up to 0.8
inclinations as high as 50°
perihelia greater than 30 AU
Dysnomia

94

The point where the interstellar medium and solar wind pressures balance is called the

95

Hydrogen has emission lines in which of the following colors?

violet
blue
cyan
green
yellow
orange
red

96

True or False, Ultraviolet observations by Mariner 10 of Mercury provided evidence for the presence of H and He in the atmosphere.

TRUE
FALSE

97

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Balloons - A
Sounding rockets - B
Aircraft assisted launches - C
Orbital rocketry - D
Shuttle payload - E
Heliocentric rocketry - F
Exploratory rocketry - G
Lunar rover - H
Ranger 5

microcalorimeter arrays

.
MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy

.
Lunokhod 2

.
ALEXIS

.
Ulysses

.
Broad Band X-Ray Telescope

.
Solar Heliospheric Observatory

.

98

A cloud at nearly a quarter of the distance to Proxima Centauri is called the

99

Complete the text:

Match up the violet or violet containing image with the object letter:
Sun - A
Venus - B
Earth - C
Moon - D
Mars - E
Jupiter - F
Ganymede - G
Io - H
Saturn - I
Dione - J
Titan - K
Uranus - L
Ariel - M
Miranda - N
Triton - O
Eta Carinae - P
NGC 5584 - Q

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100

True or False, Hematite occurs as a blue to bluish-gray mineral on Mars.

TRUE
FALSE

101

Phenomena associated with some brown dwarfs are which of the following?

lithium
a temperature well below the stellar range
methane absorption
the lithium test
X-rays
T dwarfs


HypothesesEdit

  1. Proposing several state-of-the-art, or science, original research projects for which funding is likely may be a good way to recruit students.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit