The cosmic-ray telescope collects data on the composition of the cosmic ray particles and their energy ranges. Credit: NASA.

Cosmic-ray astronomy is a lecture as part of the astronomy course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

You are free to take this quiz based on cosmic-ray astronomy at any time.

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## Quiz

1 What negatively charged particles may be used as tracers of cosmic magnetic fields?

2 True or False, Violent activity and supernovae generate cosmic-ray superthermal particles.

 TRUE FALSE

3 A cosmic ray may originate from what astronomical source?

 Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt an active galactic nucleus

4 True or False, A small amount of aluminum-26 is produced by collisions of magnesium atoms with cosmic-ray protons.

 TRUE FALSE

5 Ionization within the Earth's atmosphere from cosmic rays has what property?

 it's subject to solar eclipses it increases underwater cosmic rays do not penetrate the atmosphere is higher at the base of the Eiffel tower rather than the top is obscured by hot-air balloons the ionization rate rises at rising elevation

6 True or False, The feature that makes deep inelastic lepton scattering and e+e- annihilation tractable is that these processes proceed via the electromagnetic and strong interactions.

 TRUE FALSE

7 Which types of radiation astronomy directly observe the rocky-object surface of Venus?

 meteor astronomy cosmic-ray astronomy neutron astronomy proton astronomy beta-ray astronomy neutrino astronomy gamma-ray astronomy X-ray astronomy ultraviolet astronomy visual astronomy infrared astronomy submillimeter astronomy radio astronomy radar astronomy microwave astronomy superluminal astronomy

8 True or False, Due to the limited shielding provided by its relatively weak magnetic dipole moment, the surface of Mercury is everywhere subject to bombardment by cosmic rays.

 TRUE FALSE

9 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Gamma rays - G Superluminals - H X-ray jets the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency . iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium . Sagittarius X-1 . escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary . collisions with argon atoms . X-rays are emitted as they slow down . Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra .

10 The relative abundances of solar cosmic rays reflect those of the solar

11 Complete the text:

 The tracks in emulsion chambers have been used for measurements of nuclei above in a series of balloon-borne experiments.

12 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Neutrinos - G Muons - H Gamma rays - I X-rays - J Ultraviolet rays - K Optical rays - L Visual rays - M Violet rays - N Blue rays - O Cyan rays - P Green rays - Q Yellow rays - R Orange rays - S Red rays - T Infrared rays - U Submillimeter rays - V Radio rays - W Superluminal rays - X multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials . F547M . 511 keV gamma-ray peak . F675W . broad-band filter centered at 404 nm . a cloud chamber . ring-imaging Cherenkov . coherers . effective area is larger by 104 . F588N . pyroelectrics . a blemish about 8,000 km long . a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate . coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum . thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals . F606W . aluminum nitride . heavy water . 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm . wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO) . a recoiling nucleus high-purity germanium . magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions . 2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons .

13 True or False, Some cosmic-ray observatories also look for high energy gamma rays and X-rays.

 TRUE FALSE

14 Complete the text:

 Match up the type of cosmic-ray detector with each of the possibilities below: visible tracks - A diffusion cloud chamber - B bubbles - C a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D similar to the Haverah Park experiment - E fluorescence detectors - F spark chamber . continuously sensitized to radiation . Pierre Auger Observatory . bubble chamber . Cherenkov detector expansion cloud chamber .

15 True or False, Solitary electrons constitute much of the remaining 1 % of cosmic rays.

 TRUE FALSE

16 Complete the text:

 Cosmic rays with energies over the energy of 5 x 1019 interact with photons to produce via the ${\displaystyle \Delta }$  resonance.

17 Yes or No, The phenomenology of cosmic ray cascades reflects in an essential way processes governed by the weak force.

 Yes No

18 Complete the text:

 Bombardment by protostellar may make the rock of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and chondrules radioactive, producing found in meteorites that are difficult to obtain with other mechanisms.

19 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the detectors or satellites below: Bonner Ball Neutron Detector - A Multi Mirror Telescope - B MAGIC telescope - C Explorer 11 - D HEAO 3 - E Helios - F Pioneer 10 - G Voyager 1 - H . . . . . . .

20 Which of the following are determined by the CRS aboard Voyager 1?

 origin acceleration process neutrinos life history dynamic contribution nucleosynthesis behavior in the interplanetary medium X-rays ultraviolets visuals trapped particle environment a steady rise in May 2012 of collisions with high energy particles above 70 MeV a dramatic drop in collisions in late August

## Hypotheses

1. Cosmic rays leave a trail that can be detected.