Principles of radiation astronomy is a course of forty-eight lectures, sixteen mini-lectures for quiz sections, three hourly quizzes that are timed at an hour, a mid-term that covers the first half of the course, and a final which covers everything in the course. This is the first of three hourlies. It covers the first sixteen lectures, the first five mini-lectures, problem sets, lessons, and laboratories.

The pseudo-colour image is of the large-scale radio structure of the FRII radio galaxy 3C98. Lobes, jet and hotspot are labelled. Credit: .

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## Quiz

1 What is a pfu?

 a measure of neutron half-life suggested by Enrico Fermi a particle flux a unit per steradian (sr) the number of bubbles generated in a hydrogen bubble chamber used to detect neutrinos Niels Bohr was opposed to the pfu interpretation of beta decay a measure of the scatter energy of a neutrino hitting a proton

2 Which of the following are units of distance?

 meter acre chain acorn tympan гектар reach

3 What may be the first astronomical source of the rocky objects in the solar system?

 Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background Saturn Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt the former protoplanetary disc around the Sun the Oort cloud the Kuiper belt

4 Yes or No, The spin carried by quarks is sufficient to account for the total spin of protons.

 Yes No

5 Spin-charge separation has which characteristics?

 a chargon a spinon taking place inside solids extremely tight confinement neutron affinity X-ray absorption

6 Which of the following are characteristic of interstellar extinction?

 redder color indices closer stars more affected color excess observed color index minus intrinsic color index red shift blue shift

7

What is the blue-radiation source in the image at right?

8 What are some of the characteristics of Jovian electrons?

 hard spectrum Jovian electrons near Earth are on their way to the Sun an energy power law flux increases with 27 day periodicities at 1 AU, flux decreases exhibit a short-term modulation of 13 minutes come in mutable varieties

9 True or False, A theory may not be right but it should be testable.

 TRUE FALSE

10 Complete the text:

 Match up the star with the constellation: Capella - A Sirius - B Deneb - C Anser - D Altair - E Vega - F Vulpecula . Canis Major . Lyra . Cygnus . Aquila Auriga .

11 True or False, Although no tubular telescope has been found at ancient archaeological sites, ancient observers may have used air telescopes.

 TRUE FALSE

12 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the first astronomical source possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Gamma rays - G Superluminals - H cosmic rays galactic nuclei . comets . electron-positron annihilation . weak force nuclear decay . AGNs . 511 keV photon pair production . solar wind .

13 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Earth?

 a core which emits neutrinos a charged particle wind which emanates out the polar ionosphere holes gravity near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system the swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely sediment in the water coronal clouds chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

14 Complete the text:

 The zenith orientation faces from Earth into space, while the nadir orientation faces straight to Earth.

15 Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

 ultraviolet emission X-ray emission gamma-ray emission neutron emission 7Be emission meteor emission

16 Submillimeter radiances can be matched by models which include ice particles of?

17 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation type with the satellite: meteor - A cosmic ray - B neutral atoms - C neutron - D proton - E electron - F positron - G neutrino - H gamma ray - I X-ray - J ultraviolet - K optical - L visual - M violet - N blue - O cyan - P green - Q yellow - R orange - S red - T infrared - U submillimeter - V microwave - W radio - X radar - Y superluminal - Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 Which of the following are determined by the CRS aboard Voyager 1?

 origin acceleration process neutrinos life history dynamic contribution nucleosynthesis behavior in the interplanetary medium X-rays ultraviolets visuals trapped particle environment a steady rise in May 2012 of collisions with high energy particles above 70 MeV a dramatic drop in collisions in late August

19 An astronomical event occurred during the Cambrian, what does that mean?

 students in the India must use Greenwich mean time about 5 x 108 years ago a high-powered robotic telescope was lost on the shuttle Cambrian a student in Xinjiang has an abacus configured to the geologic time scale on-site use of two high-powered telescopes is available trilobites tried to communicate with Earth

20 Which of the following may be characteristic of magnetohydrodynamics?

 driven by current gradients neutral atoms closed tube loops twisted flux open field lines synchrotron radiation

21 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the detectors or satellites below: Bonner Ball Neutron Detector - A Multi Mirror Telescope - B MAGIC telescope - C Explorer 11 - D HEAO 3 - E Helios - F Pioneer 10 - G Voyager 1 - H . . . . . . .

22 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Neutrinos - G Muons - H Gamma rays - I X-rays - J Ultraviolet rays - K Optical rays - L Visual rays - M Violet rays - N Blue rays - O Cyan rays - P Green rays - Q Yellow rays - R Orange rays - S Red rays - T Infrared rays - U Submillimeter rays - V Radio rays - W Superluminal rays - X multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials . F547M . 511 keV gamma-ray peak . F675W . broad-band filter centered at 404 nm . a cloud chamber . ring-imaging Cherenkov . coherers . effective area is larger by 104 . F588N . pyroelectrics . a blemish about 8,000 km long . a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate . coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum . thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals . F606W . aluminum nitride . heavy water . 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm . wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO) . a recoiling nucleus high-purity germanium . magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions . 2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons .

23 True or False, A theoretical observatory decides which systems, for example, among virtual stellar systems, should be recognizable, and which not.

 TRUE FALSE

24 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Gamma rays - G Superluminals - H X-ray jets the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency . iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium . Sagittarius X-1 . escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary . collisions with argon atoms . X-rays are emitted as they slow down . Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra .

25 Ionization within the Earth's atmosphere from cosmic rays has what property?

 it's subject to solar eclipses it increases underwater cosmic rays do not penetrate the atmosphere is higher at the base of the Eiffel tower rather than the top is obscured by hot-air balloons the ionization rate rises at rising elevation

26

For standard basis, or unit, vectors (i, j, k) and vector components of a (ax, ay, az), what are the right ascension, declination, and value of a?

 if the x-axis is the longitude of the Greenwich meridian, and ax equals ay, then RA equals 6h if the x-axis is the longitude of the Greenwich meridian, and ax equals ay, then RA equals 3h the value of a is given by ${\displaystyle a={\sqrt {a_{x}^{2}+a_{y}^{2}+a_{z}^{2}}}}$ if ax equals ay equals az, then the declination is -45° if ax equals ay equals az, then the declination is +45°

27 True or False, The flux density or monochromatic flux, ${\displaystyle S}$ , of a source is the integral of the spectral radiance, ${\displaystyle B}$ , over the source solid angle:

${\displaystyle S=\iint _{\mathrm {source} }B(\Omega )\mathrm {d} \Omega =\iint _{\mathrm {source} }B(\theta ,\phi )\sin \theta \,d\theta \,d\varphi }$ .

 TRUE FALSE

28 Which of the following are associated with electromagnetics?

 angular momentum transfer solar wind protons electrons the baryon neutrino charge neutralization

29 The strong force is involved in which of the following phenomena?

 s-waves the sum of the spins neutrinos Pauli's exclusion principle deuterium radio waves

30 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a theory?

 catching a beam one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on impervious to some traveling rays a secondary-object hazard

31 True or False, The weak speed of a charged particle can exceed the speed of light.

 TRUE FALSE

32 Which of the following are temporal observatories in orbit around the Earth?

 Chandra X-ray Observatory Big Bear TRACE Kodaikanal the Hubble Lomnický štít McMath-Pierce SOFIA Rosetta

33 True or False, The feature that makes deep inelastic lepton scattering and e+e- annihilation tractable is that these processes proceed via the electromagnetic and strong interactions.

 TRUE FALSE

34 Which of the following are involved in the weak force?

 a core which emits neutrinos Fermi's β-decay theory 26Al undetectable with balloon-borne detectors Gamow-Teller interactions steady enough emission to be used as a standard for X-ray emission observed with delta-rays in 1731 M. Fierz

35 Complete the text:

 Match up the star pattern with the likely constellation: - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T Volans . Cassiopeia . Pegasus . Orion . Crux . Ursa Major . Phoenix . Draco . Eridanus .

36 True or False, A calculation of energy is not possible unless a mass is involved.

 TRUE FALSE

37 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the X-ray angular resolution possibilities below: Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer - A XMM-Newton - B Chandra X-ray Observatory - C Swift - D Astro-rivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero (AGILE) - E Solar Heliospheric Observatory - F Suzaku - G Koronas-Foton - H 2" 3" . ~2' . 1" . 5.9' . 7' . 1" . 0.5" .

38 Which of the following may be characteristic of orbital theory?

 a hyperbolic pass stellar association may point away from a stellar association eccentricity obliquity precession

39 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Balloons - A Sounding rockets - B Aircraft assisted launches - C Orbital rocketry - D Shuttle payload - E Heliocentric rocketry - F Exploratory rocketry - G Lunar rover - H Ranger 5 microcalorimeter arrays . MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy . Lunokhod 2 . ALEXIS . Ulysses . Broad Band X-Ray Telescope . Solar Heliospheric Observatory .

40 Which of the following are associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope?

 a launch location Kitt Peak National Observatory a heliostat a distinctive diagonal shaft that continues underground a theoretical resolution of 0.07" NOAA designations

41 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: superluminals - A radios - B radars - C microwaves - D submillimeters - E infrareds - F reds - G oranges - H deuterium enrichment of cometary water interstellar-comet connection . a macroscopic superstring . force of life . rings of Saturn . volcanic activity throughout Vesta . a silicon composite bolometer fed by a Winston cone . present-day fluctuations an order of magnitude larger .

42 Which of the following are phenomena associated with grid systems?

 geographic coordinates the Royal Observatory in Greenwich French Institut Géographique National (IGN) maps a longitude meridian passing through Paris a local center of civilization altitude

43 In which of the following constellations does the ecliptic and the Galaxy or the galactic plane occur?

 Sagittarius Ophiuchus Aries Ursa Minor Scorpius or Scorpio Draco Taurus

44 Which of the following may be the first astronomical source of the Earth?

 the Sun a meteor the Moon Saturn the Zodiacal Light the International Space Station the former protoplanetary disc

45 Using HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory, the first detection of what ion occurred on March 1 and March 23, 2010?

46 A first astronomical source has?

 a temporal distribution with at least one datum a spectral distribution a spatial distribution a position or location a geognosy scientific or observational investigations

47 Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Crab Nebula?

 a core which emits neutrinos low-energy X-rays detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory 26Al undetectable with balloon-borne detectors hard X-rays steady enough emission to be used as a standard for X-ray emission observed with X-rays in 1731 Taurus X-1

48 Which of the following are associated with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory?

 under ice the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station Digital Optical Modules the counting house is on the surface above the array the baryon neutrino the electron neutrino

49 Complete the text:

 Match up the observatory facility with the observatory: Ondrejov Observatory - A Okayama Astrophysical Observatory - B Orbiting Astronomical Observatory - C Metsähovi Radio Observatory - D Tortugas Mountain Planetary Observatory - E Pierre Auger Observatory - F Observed quasar 3C 454.3 in the spring of 2005. . A solar telescope. . Detector components. . Data on AG Peg were obtained with the ultraviolet broad-band photometers on the second one. . The 0.6 m monitors cloud decks and equatorial activity. A 188 cm telescope. .

50 Which phenomena are associated with the heliosphere?

 a region of space where the interstellar medium is blown away by the solar wind a bubble in space virtually all the material emanates from the Sun itself Voyager 2 Voyager 1 the termination shock

51 Electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles?

52 The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, provides?

 students in the United States with free access the Faulkes Telescope Project a high-powered robotic telescope in Jamaica a high-powered robotic telescope in Tasmania on-site use of two high-powered telescopes scientific investigations

53 Complete the text:

 Match up the distance-time phenomena with the image: line of sight - A an origin - B a displacement - C one billion light years - D measuring - E acceleration - F Celestial swiss cheese. . A beautiful galaxy. . An elliptical orbit. . Closer than a route. . It's about the chains. Getting the numbers. .

54 If energy is the impetus behind all motion and activity, which of the following are associated with power?

 a launch location a rate of change of the impetus with time photon density an acceleration of the impetus neutrinos dynamically dominating baryons a rate of change of mass

55 Which phenomenon are associated with acceleration?

 a region of space where the interstellar medium is blown away by a supernova a bubble decreasing time displacement orbiting rotation

56 Complete the text:

 Match up the type of cosmic-ray detector with each of the possibilities below: visible tracks - A diffusion cloud chamber - B bubbles - C a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D similar to the Haverah Park experiment - E fluorescence detectors - F spark chamber . continuously sensitized to radiation . Pierre Auger Observatory . bubble chamber . Cherenkov detector expansion cloud chamber .

57 Which of the following are astronomical observatory phenomena associated with the Sun?

 pyranometer actinometer Radiation Observatory, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway neutron irradiation the World Radiation Reference Scale (WRR) meteor orbits pyrheliometer

58 Which geological phenomena are associated with Earth?

 lava-spewing volcanoes sulfur volcanoes plate tectonics water oceans liquid methane oceans silicate minerals

59 Phenomena associated with Kepler-36b?

 has a gaseous surface about 30% of its mass is iron about 4.5 times the mass of Earth has a rocky surface discovered by the Kepler spacecraft about 1.5 times as large as the Earth

60 Which of the following is a phenomenon associated historically with Titania?

 Jupiter a large, trenchlike feature a relatively light surface few or no canyons and scarps very few impact craters helium ice

61 Which of the following is associated with Pluto?

 a dwarf planet a member of the Oort belt the northern polar region has brightened the southern polar region has darkened its overall redness has decreased extreme axial tilt

62 Observations of Io have benefited greatly from what phenomenon?

 a dense, opaque atmosphere lightning extensive meteorite cratering a flattening out liquid hydrocarbon lakes the reflected light of allotropes and compounds of sulfur

63 Which of the following is characteristic of the scattered disc

 a distant region of the solar system the dwarf planet Eris orbital eccentricites ranging up to 0.8 inclinations as high as 50° perihelia greater than 30 AU Dysnomia

64 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a control group?

 catching a beam one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on impervious to some traveling rays a secondary-object hazard

65 A terrestrial planet is composed primarily of?

66 Which of the following is not a studied characteristic of a planet?

 an orbit around a star a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape nucleosynthesis has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit an initially fractionated elemental composition

67 Which of the following is not a first astronomical source of rotation?

 early Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background early Saturn Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt the former protoplanetary disc around the Sun the Sun the Kuiper belt

68 Which of the following are characteristic of geomagnetic polar reversals?

 the longer the period for reversal the longer the surface irradiation the ionosphere seems to reach the surface life-forms may suffer from radiation sickness asteroids may strike the Earth that otherwise would not the rotation of the Earth slows to a halt poles of ice completely melt

69 "The spectrum of gaseous methane at 77 K in the 1.1-2.6 µm region [is] a benchmark for"

70 Which of the following is not an astronomical entity?

 Johannes Kepler the coronal cloud very near the Sun the Moon the question mark (?) the Barrington Meteor Crater Johannes Hevelius

71 The Sun as a planet has what property?

 it's subject to lunar eclipses it passes once a year through the Big Dipper its interior structure has been studied with radar optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium it has a surface temperature of ~700 K it is a wanderer

72 Complete the text:

 Match up the celestial octant with the constellation: NQ1 - A NQ2 - B NQ3 - C NQ4 - D SQ1 - E SQ2 - F SQ3 - G SQ4 - H Musca . Sagitta . Lynx . Pyxis . Piscis Austrinus . Corona Borealis . Pictor Taurus .

73 Which of the following is not an electron volt?

 the angular momentum of the planet Mercury around the Sun a unit of energy a quantity that denotes the ability to do work 1.2 PeV a unit dimensioned in mass, distance, and time a unit not based on the Coulomb

74 Complete the text:

 When imaged in visible light Venus appears like a gas rather than a planet.

75 A natural rocky source of chemicals from the sky to the ground may originate from what astronomical source?

 Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt the International Space Station

76 That part of outer space between planets and their star(s) is called?

77 What may be the first astronomical source referred to by the term "God"?

 early Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background early Saturn Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt the former protoplanetary disc around the Sun the Oort cloud the Kuiper belt

78 Which of the following is not an idea?

 2 the Sun radius sky heavens orbit

79 The use of the principle of line of sight allows what phenomenon to be determined?

 the Moon is closer to the Earth than the Sun the planet Mercury is nearer to the Earth than Venus any cumulus cloud overhead follows the Sun across the sky the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun is in the plane of the galaxy the surface of the photosphere of the Sun is hotter than the surface of Mars lightning always precedes rain

80 True or False, In the exosphere, temperature rises from around 1,500°C to 105 K.

 TRUE FALSE

81 The relative abundances of solar cosmic rays reflect those of the solar

82 Complete the text:

 The majority of known asteroids orbit the Sun between the orbits of and .

83 The heliosphere might be the first astronomical source of?

 the interstellar medium the solar wind a bubble in space virtually all the material emanating from the Sun itself Voyager 2 Voyager 1 a termination shock

84 Ashen light is involved in which of the following?

 earthshine glow of the bright part of the lunar disk light from different parts of Earth are mixed together mimics the Earth as a single dot neutron astronomy X-ray astronomy

85 Meteorites found on Earth may be from which of the following?

 Saturn Mercury the Moon the asteroid belt Jupiter Mars

86 What may be the first astronomical cosmic-ray source?

 Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt an active galactic nucleus

87 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the cosmogonic possibilities below: interior models of the giant planets - A high interest for cosmogony, geophysics and nuclear physics - B hierarchical accumulation - C clouds and globular clusters - D cosmic helium abundance - E deuterium fusion - F a large deficiency of light elements - G after galactic sized systems had collapsed - H the motions of hydrogen formation of luminous quasars . stars with an initial mass less than the solar mass . rotating liquid drops . primordial is less than 26 per cent . a solar mixture of elements dominated by hydrogen and helium gas . around 13 Jupiter masses . smaller rocky objects .

88 Complete the text:

 Match up the theoretical astronomy idea with each of the possibilities below: astronomical object - A astronomical source - B astronomical entity - C star - D interstellar medium - E material - F natural luminous body visible in the sky . naturally from which something comes . matter which may be shaped or manipulated . an independent, separate, or self-contained existence . the matter that exists in the space between the star systems naturally in the sky especially at night .

89 If astronomy measures distances and speeds then what is mass?

 an idea a number many distances the sky heavens an orbit

90 An X-ray source has been located at B1950 right ascension 01h 00m 06.91s and declination +62° 05' 45.5", which of the following constellations does this source occur in?

 Mensa Camelopardalis Hydrus Ursa Minor Cassiopeia Draco Volans

91 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation object with the likely source: - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T a Craters of the Moon volcano . violet image of Venus . active galactic nuclear region of NGC 5728 . cosmic-ray bombardment of the Moon's surface . blue lights from Io . neutrino profile of the solar octant . planetary nebula NGC 7048 . ultraviolet image of the Earth . a neutron star in a binary system .

92 Complete the text:

 Match up the type of source with each of the possibilities below: a source - A a source or apparent source detected or created at or near the time of the event or events - B a source or apparent source that transforms or transduces anything originating from a primary source - C a source or apparent source that selects (such as through selective absorption), distills, scatters, or reflects anything from a primary or secondary source - D the point of origin of a ray, beam, or stream of small cross section traveling in a line - E a natural source in the sky especially at night - F a tertiary source . a primary source . an astronomical source . a secondary source . a radiation source an entity from which something comes or is acquired .

93 Space radiation may be classified according to origin as?

 galactic cosmic radiation charged particles in large clouds solar particle radiation interaction with the geo-electric field protons and electrons geomagnetically trapped particle radiation

94 What may be the first astronomical source of the rocky-object Mercury?

 Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background Saturn Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt the former protoplanetary disc around the Sun

95 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with space radiation?

 possible orbits a hyperbolic orbit nuclear fusion at a star's exposed core nuclear fusion in a star's chromosphere near the barycenter of its planetary system accretion electric arcs non-water ice cometary origin

96 Complete the text:

 Diamond nanocrystals (size 100 nm) emit bright at 600–800 nm when exposed to green and yellow photons. The photoluminescence, arising from excitation of the defect centers created by proton-beam and thermal annealing, closely resembles the extended red emission (ERE) bands observed in reflection nebulae and nebulae. The central wavelength of the emission is 700 nm.

97 The cosmic infrared background (CIB) causes a significant attenuation for very high energy protons through inverse Compton scattering, photopion and electron-positron pair production.

 TRUE FALSE

99 Complete the text:

 Match up the type of phenomenon with each of the possibilities below: visible tracks such as a star trail - A a cloud - B bubbles - C a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D octagon - E circumpolar trail - F quadrangles . hectare . rotational pole . diameters . polyhedron an arc .

100 Four scores in time is eighty

 .

101 Which of the following are characteristic of a volume?

 polyhedra globes hectares pyramid pathway furloughs

## Hypotheses

1. Essays such as for laboratories could be handled much like cases in Upper Limb Orthotics