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This is a true-color image of Io taken by the Galileo probe. Credit: NASA.

Yellow astronomy is astronomy applied to the various extraterrestrial yellow sources of radiation, especially at night. It is also conducted above the Earth's atmosphere and at locations away from the Earth as a part of explorational (or exploratory) yellow astronomy.

There are yellow objects and emission lines in the yellow portion of the visible spectrum from 570 to 590 nm in wavelength.

Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometres (2,263 mi), the fourth-largest moon in the Solar System. With over 400 active volcanoes, Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System.[1][2] Most of Io's surface is characterized by extensive plains coated with sulfur and sulfur dioxide frost. Io's volcanism is responsible for many of the satellite's unique features. Its volcanic plumes and lava flows produce large surface changes and paint the surface in various shades of yellow, red, white, black, and green, largely due to allotropes and compounds of sulfur.


  1. Rosaly MC Lopes (2006). "Io: The Volcanic Moon". In Lucy-Ann McFadden, Paul R. Weissman, Torrence V. Johnson (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Academic Press. pp. 419–431. ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3.CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link)
  2. Lopes, R. M. C.; et al. (2004). "Lava lakes on Io: Observations of Io’s volcanic activity from Galileo NIMS during the 2001 fly-bys". Icarus 169 (1): 140–174. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2003.11.013.