Davidson Seamount is an underwater volcano located off the coast of Central California, 80 miles (129 km) southwest of Monterey and 75 mi (121 km) west of San Simeon. At 26 mi (42 km) long and 8 mi (13 km) wide, it is one of the largest known seamounts in the world.[1] From base to crest, the seamount is 7,480 feet (2,280 m) tall, yet its summit is still 4,101 ft (1,250 m) below the sea surface. The seamount is biologically diverse, with 237 species and 27 types of deep-sea coral having been identified.[2]

Bathymetric shows details of the Davidson Seamount. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}
Multibeam image is of the Ely Seamount in the Gulf of Alaska. Credit: Jason Chaytor and Randall Keller, Oregon State University and NOAA.{{fairuse}}

In the image on the left is the Ely Seamount in the Gulf of Alaska. "Geomorphic and age data [have been documented] for the Dellwood, Denson, Dickins, Giacomini, and Ely seamounts, the Tsimshian Seachannel, and the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge with Brown Bear, Bear Cub, Grizzly Bear, and Cobb seamounts."[3] For the Ely Seamount note the circularity and the hole in the center of the seamount.

Theoretical seamounts edit

The Bear Seamount (left, a 3-D depiction) is a guyot in the northern Atlantic Ocean with Physalia Seamount in the background. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}

Def. a "mountain [with a prominence of more than 1,000 metres, which][4] [does not breach the water's surface][5] that rises from the floor of the ocean"[6] is called a seamount.

Def. a "flat-topped seamount"[7] is called a guyot.

Seamounts are defined as independent features that rise to at least 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above the seafloor, characteristically of conical form.[8]

The peaks are often found hundreds to thousands of meters below the surface, and are therefore considered to be within the deep sea.[9]

During their evolution over geologic time, the largest seamounts may reach the sea surface where wave action erodes the summit to form a flat surface, but after they have subsided and sunk below the sea surface such flat-top seamounts are called "guyots" or "tablemounts".[8]

The Earth's oceans contain more than 14,500 identified seamounts[10] of which 9,951 seamounts and 283 guyots, covering a total area of 8,796,150 square kilometres (3,396,210 sq mi), have been mapped.[11]

Antarctic Ocean seamounts edit

The Transantarctic Mountains separate West Antarctica from East Antarctica. Credit: Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica team.{{free media}}

Note the location of the South Shetland Islands off the coast near the end of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Pacific-Antarctic Ridge edit

The Pacific-Antarctic Ridge is the southern extension of the East Pacific Rise. Credit: NDGC/NOAA.{{free media}}

The Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (PAR) is a divergent tectonic plate boundary located on the seafloor of the South Pacific Ocean, separating the Pacific Plate from the Antarctic Plate. It is regarded as the southern section of the East Pacific Rise in some usages, generally south of the Challenger Fracture Zone and stretching to the Macquarie Triple Junction south of New Zealand.[12]

Wordie Seamount edit

Map shows the South Shetland Islands. Credit: Topbanana.{{free media}}

Wordie Seamount is located at Lua error: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found., which is 37 km south of Gibbs Island in the South Shetland Islands.

Arctic Ocean seamounts edit

A map shows a seamount in the Arctic Ocean created by NOAA's Office of Coast Survey by gathering data with a multibeam echo sounder. Credit: NOAA's National Ocean Service.{{free media}}

The Arctic Ocean has only 16 seamounts and no guyots.

Atlantic Ocean seamounts edit

Morphometry shows the Concepcion Bank. Credit: Rivera et al. (2016).{{free media}}

Morphometry of the Concepcion Bank shows evidence of geological and biological processes on a large volcanic seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province. Bathymetry of Concepcion Bank and surrounding deep seafloor.
(A) Bathymetric map from multibeam data (bright colours) and GEBCO (dull colours). The dashed lines delimit the three SWNW oriented parallel depth sectors.
(B) Bathymetric cross section along a SE-NW direction. Significant changes in slope are indicated. See location in A. Vertical exaggeration is 14:1. Summit location is indicated by a black triangle with a label showing its depth in meters.[13]

Atlantis Seamount edit

The Seewarte Seamounts are shown with the Azores Plateau to the north. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}

Numerous freshwater diatoms likely deposited as sediment in fresh water lakes have been found on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from several cores that were taken over 900 km distance from the coast of Equatorial West Africa that may be evidence that the area was islands 10 – 12,000 years ago, where the diatoms were later inundated under 3 km of sea water.[14].

At 37 degrees North the Atlantis seamount located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is flat topped at a depth of around 180 fathoms and has a current-rippled sand or cobbled surface, where around a ton of limestone cobbles have been brought up from the summit, which gave a radiocarbon date of 12,000+/- 900 years and that the limestone was lithified in a location above the water and that this is evidence that the seamount had once been an island but was submerged in the last 12,000 years.[15]

The Seewarte Seamounts, also known as the Seewarte Seamount Chain, Atlantis-Great Meteor Seamount Chain and the Atlantis-Plato-Cruiser-Great Meteor Seamount Group,[16] is a north-south trending group of extinct submarine volcanoes in the northern Atlantic Ocean south-southeast of the Corner Rise Seamounts.

The Seewarte Seamounts have been interpreted to have formed as a result of the African Plate traveling over the New England hotspot.[17]

The Seewarte Seamounts include:

  • Closs Seamount
  • Little Meteor Seamount
  • Great Meteor Seamount
  • Hyères Seamount
  • Irving Seamount
  • Cruiser Tablemount
  • Plato Seamount
  • Atlantis Seamount
  • Tyro Seamount.

Bear Seamount edit

A multibeam swath bathymetric image shows the Bear Seamount produced on the Ocean Explorer (OE) sponsored Deep East mission in 2001. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}
Map shows the locations of Bear, Kelvin and Manning seamounts. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}

The Bear Seamount is a guyot or flat-topped underwater volcano in the Atlantic Ocean, the oldest of the New England Seamounts, which was active more than 100 million years ago, formed when the North American Plate moved over the New England hotspot.[18]

Coral Patch Seamount edit

This image shows the Coral Patch Seamount in its southwest corner near the Seine Abyssal Plain. Credit: C. Wienberg, P. Wintersteller, L. Beuck, and D. Hebbeln.{{fairuse}}

Bathymetric map of the Coral Patch Seamount covers an area of 560 km2 and a water depth range between 560 and 2660 m (Mercator projection, 5 times exaggerated, shaded relief). Displayed are the ENE-WSW elongated summit and the northern and southern flanks of the seamount, the latter being incised by several canyon-like structures. Inserted box shows video-surveyed area (white lines indicate survey tracks) at the south-western top. Pink stars indicate ROV samples (a, b, c) and pink dots indicate position of Van Veen grab samples (91, 92) collected during R/V VICTOR HENSEN cruise VH97.

Iberian margins edit

This bathymetry map locates major seamounts between Madeira and Iberia. Credit: ELLA links.{{fairuse}}
The image shows the many islands, seamounts and ocean floor plateaus of the Iberian margins. Credit: Russell Wynn and Bryan Cronin.{{fairuse}}

In the image on the left, sea level during the last glaciation is likely at or above the yellow contour band.

The image on the right shows a larger area of the Iberian margins in which the features in left image occur.

Indian Ocean seamounts edit

The largest mean seamount size occurs in the Indian Ocean.

Christmas Island Seamounts edit

Christmas Island is seen during the STS-7 mission. Credit: NASA STS-7 crew.{{free media}}
Map of Christmas was produced by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, unless otherwise indicated. Maps dated 1976 were taken from The Indian Ocean Atlas, published by the Central Intelligence Agency. Credit: unknown.{{free media}}

Christmas Island is located at 10°29'S 105°38'E, near Indonesia.

Height is up to 4,500 metres (14,800 ft)[19]

Age is 47 to 136 Ma.[20]

The Christmas Island Seamount Province (aka Christmas Island Seamounts) is an unusual seamount (submarine volcano) formation named for Christmas Island that is also part of the chain. The province consists of more than 50 seamounts, up to 4,500 metres (14,800 ft) in height, within a 1,080,000 square kilometres (417,000 sq mi) area.[19][20]

Unlike most seamount groups, the Christmas Island seamount formation does not form a long hotspot-based chain of increasingly older volcanoes, instead being a scattered grouping of volcanoes within a large radius. The Christmas Island area does not exhibit the hotspot chain formation that most seamount groups have, nor does it run perpendicular to a local rift zone, instead lying roughly parallel to the edge of the Australian Plate. Many of the seamounts are flat-topped guyots, showing that at one point the province was likely a group of active volcanic islands, before it was slowly eroded to its current subsurface level.[20]

Rock samples tested for Argon-argon dating (40Ar/39Ar), strontium, neodymium, hafnium and lead to determine its age and origin found that the rock of the seamounts was more similar to continental than oceanic crust, particularly resembling northwest Australian crust. The seamounts were found to be 47 to 136 million years old, decreasing in age from east to west, and at most 25 million years younger than the crust surrounding them. Plate reconstructions based on these dates showed that the seamounts formed where West Burma separated from Australia and India, during the breakup of Gondwana, approximately 150 million years ago. The seamounts may have been made of recycled, delaminated continental crust enriched in mantle material that was rising beneath the mid-ocean ridge forming at the time, and that this may be a relatively common process in shallow-basin areas.[19][20]

The island is about 19 kilometres (12 mi) in greatest length and 14.5 kilometres (9.0 mi) in breadth. The total land area is 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi), with 138.9 kilometres (86.3 mi) of coastline. The island is the flat summit of an underwater mountain more than 4,500 metres (14,800 ft) high,[21] which rises from about 4,200 metres (13,780 ft) below the sea and only about 300 m (984 ft) above it.[22]

The mountain was originally a volcano, and some basalt is exposed in places such as The Dales and Dolly Beach, but most of the surface rock is limestone accumulated from coral growth. The karst terrain supports numerous anchialine caves.[23] The summit of this mountain peak is formed by a succession of Tertiary limestones ranging in age from the Eocene or Oligocene up to recent reef deposits, with intercalations of volcanic rock in the older beds.[24]

Steep cliffs along much of the coast rise abruptly to a central plateau. Elevation ranges from sea level to 361 metres (1,184 ft) at Murray Hill. The island is mainly tropical rainforest, 63% of which is national parkland. The narrow fringing reef surrounding the island poses a maritime hazard.

Christmas Island lies 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) northwest of Perth, Western Australia, 350 kilometres (220 mi) south of Indonesia, 975 km (606 mi) ENE of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and 2,748 km (1,708 mi) west of Darwin, Northern Territory. Its closest point to the Australian mainland is 1,560 km (970 mi) from the town of Exmouth, Western Australia.[25]

Mediterranean and Black Seas seamounts edit

The Mediterranean and Black seas together have only 23 seamounts and 2 guyots.

Pacific Ocean seamounts edit

Topographical map shows the Louisville seamount chain. Credit: World Data Center for Geophysics & Marine Geology (Boulder, CO), National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA.{{free media}}

The largest seamount has an area of 15,500 square kilometres (6,000 sq mi) and it occurs in the North Pacific. Guyots cover a total area of 707,600 square kilometres (273,200 sq mi) and have an average area of 2,500 square kilometres (970 sq mi), more than twice the average size of seamounts. Nearly 50% of guyot area and 42% of the number of guyots occur in the North Pacific Ocean, covering 342,070 square kilometres (132,070 sq mi). The largest three guyots are all in the North Pacific: the Kuko Guyot (estimated 24,600 square kilometres (9,500 sq mi)), Suiko Guyot (estimated 20,220 square kilometres (7,810 sq mi)) and the Pallada Guyot (estimated 13,680 square kilometres (5,280 sq mi)).[11]

The Louisville Ridge, aka the Louisville Seamount Chain,[26] is an underwater chain of over 70 seamounts located in the Southwest portion of the Pacific Ocean. As one of the longest seamount chains on Earth it stretches some 4,300 kilometres (2,700 mi)[27] from the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge northwest to the Tonga-Kermadec Trench, where it subducts under the Indo-Australian Plate as part of the Pacific Plate. The chain may have been formed by movement of the Pacific Plate over the Louisville hotspot[28] or by leakage of magma from the shallow mantle up through the Eltanin fracture zone, which it follows closely.[29]

Depth-sounding data first revealed the existence of the seamount chain in 1972.[30] "The Louisville Ridge was first detected in 1972 using depth soundings collected along random ship crossings of the South Pacific. Six years later the full extent of this chain was revealed by a radar altimeter aboard the Seasat (NASA) spacecraft."[30]

The Louisville Ridge includes the following:

  • Burton Seamount
  • Currituck Seamount
  • Danseur Seamount
  • Darvin Guyot
  • Forde Seamount
  • Louisville Seamount
  • Osbourn Seamount
  • Pierson Seamount
  • Rumyantsev Seamount
  • Seafox Seamount
  • Trobriant Seamount
  • Valerie Guyot
  • Vostok Seamount.

Axial Seamount edit

Exaggerated swath bathymetry shows the Axial Seamount and the surrounding area. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}
Full bathymetry of Axial Seamount is shown with a close-up of its unusual caldera. Part of Brown Bear Seamount can be seen on the left. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}
Close up shows the northern rift zone and the Axial Seamount. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}

The Axial Seamount (aka Coaxial Seamount or Axial Volcano) is a seamount and submarine volcano located on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, approximately 480 kilometres (298 mi) west of Cannon Beach, Oregon, standing 1,100 metres (3,609 ft) high.[31]

The Axial Seamount is the youngest volcano and current eruptive center of the Cobb–Eickelberg Seamount chain, a chain of seamounts that terminates south of Alaska.[32] Axial lies where the chain intersects with the Juan de Fuca Ridge,[33] approximately 480 kilometres (298 mi) west of Oregon. It is a product of the Cobb hotspot, but now sits on an ocean spreading center between the Juan de Fuca Plate and the North American Plate,[34] offset by the Blanco Fracture Zone to the south and a mid-ocean ridge-built triple junction to the north.[32][33]

The chain may have been formed over millions of years by the now-inactive Cobb hotspot and is older than the mid-ocean ridge it bisects.[33] Between 200,000 and 700,000 years ago, the hotspot was encroached by the tectonic spreading center,[35] displacing it by as much as 20 kilometres (12 mi) and building up the 500 kilometres (311 mi) long Juan de Fuca Ridge. At least 7 spreading centers have been recognized,[33] and plate measurements near Axial show that the ridge is separating at a rate of 6 centimetres (2 in) per year,[32][n 1] producing a complex system of oceanic basins and ridges.[33] However, the high density of the chain's overlapping seamounts is incompatible with such an origin, as a hotspot would form a well organized, widely spaced chain.[32]

Basins around the volcano increase its irregularity, making it unusually complex (most seamounts of roughly the same size are circular or flattened in shape.)[33]

The Axial Seamount's summit is marked by an unusual rectangular caldera, 3 by 8 kilometres (2 mi × 5 mi) in area,[31] ~3° in slope,[33] and breached on the southeast side. The area is offset by the two rift zones and defined on three sides by boundary faults up to 150 metres (492 ft) deep.[31] The caldera is roughly 50 metres (164 ft) deeper at the north side then it is in the south. Flows within the caldera consist mostly of sheet flows pocketed by lava ponds and pit craters. Less common are pillow lavas; their arrangement along the caldera walls suggests that they were an important component in the volcano's early growth. There are several lava dome-like structures within the caldera with heights of 100–300 metres (328–984 ft). There are several small volcanic craters within the region, the largest of which, the D.D. Cone, is 2 kilometres (1 mi) in diameter and 100 metres (328 ft) in relief. However, most of the features do not range over 30 to 40 metres (98 to 131 ft) deep and 1 km (1 mi) across.[33]

The northern rift zone of Axial Seamount is a 5 kilometres (3 mi) long ridge running 10 to 20 degrees northeast of the main caldera. The rift is pocketed by multiple fissures, 100–200 metres (328–656 ft) in length, as far as 7 kilometres (4 mi) from Axial Volcano's center, and reaching up to 400 metres (1,312 ft) long and 20 metres (66 ft) deep. The area contains high amounts of volcanic glass; a major eruption is still visible in the form of an elongated glassy lava flow extending off the caldera wall, east of the main rift line. Dives in 1983 found extensive low-temperature hydrothermal venting at the northern half of the fissure. The shorter, newer southern rift zone consists of a topographically plunging rift, surrounding by subtle, discontinuous faults. Camera tows along the southern flank reveal that the area is built of delineated sheet flows, small lava ponds, and lava channels.[33]

The youngest of the flows on Axial Seamount are aligned along the two rift zones, followed by flows inside the summit caldera; the oldest appear to originate from directly around the caldera, where most of the basalt is completely covered in accumulated sediment. This suggests a bilateral growth pattern, a trend also found in Hawaii hotspot volcanics and other well-known seamounts, for instance Jasper Seamount.[33]

The Axial Seamount's growth has intersected the growth of many of the smaller seamounts around it. The largest of these is Brown Bear Seamount, to which it is connected[35] by a narrow ridge running roughly perpendicular to its western caldera wall. However, little evidence of interactions between the two seamounts has been found.[33] On the other hand, Axial Seamount's southern rift zone bisects Vance Seamount by as much as 30 kilometres (19 mi), creating a zone of intense fissuring at the northern edge of the smaller volcano.[n 2] Interactions with Cobb Seamount to the north are more complex, forming an unusual "bent spreading center." In addition there are four smaller structures directly east, north, and south of Axial.[32]

Cross Seamount edit

The Cross Seamount is a seamount far southwest of the Hawaii archipelago. Credit: EarthRef, a National Science Foundation project.{{fairuse}}

Cross Seamount is a seamount far southwest of the Hawaii archipelago that is one of the numerous seamounts surrounding Hawaii, although unrelated to the Hawaiian hotspot.[36]

Main line seamounts edit

Main Line Islands seamount chain lineation (thick black line NW-SE) and two cross-trend seamount trails (thinner black lines that are E-W) are shown. Credit: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.{{free media}}
The Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain is shown on an Elevation World Map. Credit: NOAA.{{free media}}

One of the Main Line Islands seamount chain is the Horizon Guyot at Coordinates 19°07.9′N 169°27.6′W in the Mid-Pacific Mountains.

See also edit

References edit

  1. "Davidson Seamount: In 2009, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Expanded To Include The Davidson Seamount Management Zone". NOAA (Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary). 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  2. "Davidson Seamount: In 2009, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Expanded To Include The Davidson Seamount Management Zone". NOAA (Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary). 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  3. N. Christian Smoot (1 June 1985). "Observations on Gulf of Alaska seamount chains by multi-beam sonar". Tectonophysics 115 (3-4): 235-246. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(85)90140-4. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0040195185901404. Retrieved 22 October 2022. 
  4. Theknightwho (10 September 2022). seamount. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/seamount. Retrieved 2014-12-18. 
  5. Cynewulf (14 November 2007). seamount. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/seamount. Retrieved 2014-12-18. 
  6. SemperBlotto (18 August 2006). seamount. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/seamount. Retrieved 2014-12-18. 
  7. SemperBlotto (18 August 2006). guyot. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/guyot. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 IHO, 2008. Standardization of Undersea Feature Names: Guidelines Proposal form Terminology, 4th ed. International Hydrographic Organization and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Monaco.
  9. Nybakken, James W. and Bertness, Mark D., 2008. Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach. Sixth Edition. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco
  10. Watts, T. (2019). "Science, Seamounts and Society". Geoscientist August 2019: 10–16. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Harris, P.T., MacMillan-Lawler, M., Rupp, J., Baker, E.K., 2014. Geomorphology of the oceans. Marine Geology 352, 4–24
  12. "Pacific-Antarctic Ridge". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
  13. Rivera, J. et al.; Canals, M; Lastras, G; Hermida; Amblas, D; Arrese, B (2016). "Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province". PLoS ONE 11 (5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156337. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156337. 
  14. R.W. Kolbe, 'Fresh-water diatoms from Atlantic deep-sea sediments', Science, vol. 126, 1957, pp. 1053-1056 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/126/3282/1053.full.pdf ; R.W. Kolbe, 'Turbidity currents and displaced fresh-water diatoms', Science, vol. 127, 1958, pp. 1504-1505 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/127/3313/1504.2.full.pdf ; Corliss, 1989, pp. 32-33
  15. B.C. Heezen, M. Ewing, D.B. Ericson & C.R. Bentley, "Flat-topped Atlantis, Cruiser, and Great Meteor Seamounts" (Abstract), Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 65, 1954, p. 1261; Corliss, 1988, p. 88. http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/65
  16. "Marine Gazetteer Placedetails". Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  17. Geological Origin of the New England Seamount Chain
  18. "Geological Origin of the New England Seamount Chain". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2005. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Crystal Gammon (20 December 2011). "Surprising Christmas Island Seamounts Mystery Solved". LiveScience through Yahoo News. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 K. Hoernle; F. Hauff; R. Werner; P. van den Bogaard; A. D. Gibbons; S. Conrad; R. D. Müller (27 November 2011). "Origin of Indian Ocean Seamount Province by shallow recycling of continental lithosphere". Nature Geoscience 4 (12): 883–887. doi:10.1038/ngeo1331. 
  21. "Submission on Development Potential No. 37" (PDF). Northern Australia Land and Water Taskforce. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  22. "Christmas island". World Factbook. CIA. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  23. "Christmas Islands Hidden Secret". Advanced Diver Magazine. 2016. http://www.advanceddivermagazine.com/articles/christmasisland.html. Retrieved 2016-01-02. 
  24. II.—A Monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean: Physical Features and Geology). By C. W. Andrews. With descriptions of the fauna and flora by numerous contributors. 8vo; pp. xiii, 337, 22 plates, 1 map, text illustrated.(London : printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, 1900.)
  25. Geoscience Australia. Remote Offshore Territories. http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/national-location-information/dimensions/remote-offshore-territories. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  26. "Marine Gazetteer Placedetails". Retrieved 2017-02-20.
  27. Vanderkluysen, L.; Mahoney, J. J.; Koppers, A. A.; and Lonsdale, P. F. (2007). Geochemical Evolution of the Louisville Seamount Chain, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #V42B-06.
  28. Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Geldmacher, Jörg; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Pressling, Nicola; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Geldmacher, Jörg et al. (December 2012). "Limited latitudinal mantle plume motion for the Louisville hotspot". Nature Geoscience 5 (12): 911–917. doi:10.1038/ngeo1638. ISSN 1752-0908. https://www.nature.com/articles/ngeo1638. 
  29. Smith, A. G. (2007). "A plate model for Jurassic to recent intraplate volcanism in the Pacific Ocean basin". In Plates, Plumes, and Planetary Processes, Edited by G.R. Foulger and D.M. Jurdy, Geological Society of America Special Paper 530, Boulder, CO 430: 471–496. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 Sandwell, David T.; Walter H.F. Smith (1997). "Exploring the ocean basins with satellite altimeter data". Satellite Geodesy. La Jolla: Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Axial Seamount. National Museum of Natural History. https://web.archive.org/web/20100610024140/http://volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1301-021. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 Johnson, H. P.; R. W. Embley (1990). "Axial Seamount: An Active Ridge Axis Volcano on the Central Juan De Fuca Ridge". Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (B8): 12689–12696. doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12689. https://web.archive.org/web/20120929070516/http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1990/JB095iB08p12689.shtml. Retrieved 12 October 2010. 
  33. 33.00 33.01 33.02 33.03 33.04 33.05 33.06 33.07 33.08 33.09 33.10 Embley, R. W.; K. M. Murphy; C. G. Fox (2 February 1990). "High-Resolution Studies of the Summit of Axial Volcano". Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (B8): 12785–12812. doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12785. https://web.archive.org/web/20120928193515/http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1990/JB095iB08p12785.shtml. Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  34. Lyn Topinka (2 August 2007). "Plate Tectonics – Juan de Fuca Ridge – Juan de Fuca Subduction". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Chadwick, J.; M. Perfit; I. Ridley; I. Jonasson; G. Kamenov; W. Chadwick; R. Embley; P. le Roux et al. (2005). "Magmatic effects of the Cobb hot spot on the Juan de Fuca Ridge". Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (B03101): 16. doi:10.1029/2003JB002767. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927004335/http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/staff/chadwick/pubs/Chadwick_2004_Cobb_JGR.pdf. Retrieved 16 October 2010. 
  36. "Hawaii's Volcanoes Revealed" (PDF). USGS Poster. USGS. Retrieved 2009-03-28.

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