Fundamental Physics/Formulas

ForceEdit

Force is a physical quantity that interacts with matter to perform a task

Force Definition Notation Formula
Motion Force Force that sets matter in motion    
Impulse Force that sets a mass in motion    
Opposition force Force that opposes the interacting force with matter    
Pressure force Force that acts on surface's area    
Friction Force Force opposes matter movement on a surface
Elastic Force Force that restores matter equilibrium    
Circulation Force Force sets matter in circular motion    
Centripetal Force Force that sets matter moves out of circulation motion    
Centripugal Force Force that sets matter moves in of circulation motion    
Electrostatic Force Attraction force of 2 different polaity charges    
Electromotive Force Force sets electric charge in motion    
Electromagnetomotive Force Force that sets moving electric charge to move perpendicular to the intial travel direction    
Electromagnetic Force Summation of 2 force Electromotive force and Electromagnetomotive force    

MotionEdit

Movement of matter from one place to another place caused by a force

Uniform linear motionEdit

Motion that follows straight path of constant speed for example horizontal uniform linear motion, vertical uniform linear motion,

Notation Horizontal uniform linear motion Vertical uniform linear motion Inclined uniform linear motion
Distance s      
Time t      
Speed v      
Acceleration a      
Force F      
Work W      
power E      

Non uniform curve motionEdit

Motion that does not follow a straight path

Notation Formulas
Distance s(t)  
Time t  
Speed v(t)  
Acceleration a(t)  
Force F(t)  
Work W(t)  
Energy E(t)  

Periodic motionEdit

Motion that keeps repeat itself over a period of time

Circular motionEdit

Motion that follows a circular path

Full circle motionEdit

Motion that completes a circle

Notation Formulas
Distance s  
Time t  
Speed v  
Angular speed ω  
Acceleration a  
Force F  
Work W  
Energy E  
Circle's arc motionEdit

Motion that follows an arc of a circle

Notation Formulas
Distance s  
Time t  
Speed v  
Angular speed ω  
Acceleration a  
Force F  
Work W  
Energy E  

WaveEdit

Mathematical formulaEdit

A period motion of a sinusoidal motion

Notation Formulas
Distance s  
Time t  
Speed v  
Angular Speed ω  
Frequency f  
Wave equation f"(t)  
Wave function f(t)  

Sinusoidal waveEdit

Mathematiccaly sinusoidal can be represent by a wave equation and a wave function

Wave equation

 

Wave function

 

OscillationEdit

Spring's OscillationEdit
Spring's Oscillation Symbol Horizontal Vertical
Spring's Oscillation equation      
Spring's wave function      
Angular speed ω    
Pendulum OscillationEdit
 

The differential equation which represents the motion of a simple pendulum is

  Eq. 1

where g is acceleration due to gravity, l is the length of the pendulum, and θ is the angular displacement.

Electric OscillationEdit
Electric's Oscillation RLC series at equilibrium RLC series at resonance LC series at equilibrium LC series at resonance
       
Wave equation        
Wave function    
 
 
   
 
       
 
       
 
 
 
Electromagnetic OscillationEdit
Electromagnetic's Oscillation Formula
Wave equation  
 
Wave function
 
 
Angular speed
 
Time constant
 
Wave hape
 

MomentumEdit

Momentum is defined as motion of a mass at a speed caused by a force

 

Moment

 
Momentum of a mass in motionEdit
Notation Formulas
Mass m  
Speed v  
Moment p  
Impulse(Force) F  
Work W  
Energy E  
Momentum of a relativistic mass in motionEdit

Momentum refers to movement of a mass at a speed relative to the speed of light

Notation Formulas
Mass m  
Speed v  
Momentum p  
Force F  
Work W  
Energy E  
Momentum of a massless quanta in motionEdit

Momentum refers to movement of a mass at a speed equals to the speed of light

Notation Formulas
Speed v  
Work W  
Quanta h  
Momentum p  
Wavelength  
Momentum of electric chargeEdit
 
 
 
 
Momentum of free electronEdit

Absorbing photon, electron becomes free electron travels outward off the atom's circular orbit

 
 
Momentum of a bind electronEdit

Releasing photon, electron becomes free electron travels inward off the circle orbit

 
 
 
 

HeatEdit

TemperatureEdit

Temperature is the measurement of heat's intensity . Temperature is denoted as T measured in degree o

Temperature measurementsEdit

There are 3 temperature measuring system

  1. Degree Celcius,  
  2. Degree Kevin ,  
  3. Degree Fahrenheit ,  


Conversion between systems of temperature can be done as shown below

Convert from to ' Formulas
Degree Fahrenheit Celsius °C = (°F – 32) / 1.8
Degree Celsius Fahrenheit °F = °C × 1.8 + 32
Degree Fahrenheit Kelvin K = (°F – 32) / 1.8 + 273.15

Standard temperaturesEdit

Standard temperature Value
Room temperature  
Boiling temperature  
Frozen temperature  

Heat and matterEdit

Heat and matter interact to create Heat transfer of three phases Heat conduction, Heat convection and Heat radiation

Heat absortion of matterEdit

  • Matter of dark color absorbs more heat energy than matter of bright color
  • Matter of thin dimension absorbs more heat energy than matter of thich dimension

For example

Dark and thin clothes dry faster than bright and thick clothes

Heat TransferEdit

A process of heat interaction with matter through 3 phases of

Heat conductionEdit

Matter change its temperature when it in contact with heat energy

 
 
Heat convectionEdit

Matter absorbs heat energy to its maximum level and gives off visible light

 
 
Heat radiationEdit

Matter is at its saturation . Matter is no longer absorbs heat energy and use the excess energy to release electron of its atom

 
 

Heat flowEdit

Heat flows between 2 objects of different mass follows heat flow rule that heat flows from high temperature to low temperature

Heat energy absorb by mass 1

 

Heat energy absorb by mass 2

 

Direction of heat flow

 
 
 
 

LightEdit

Speed of visible lightEdit

Speed of light is denoted as C which has a value

  m/s

Measurement speed of visible lightEdit

In vacuum   By Michael Morrison
In air, as electromagnetic radiation   By James Clerk Maxwell
In liquid   By Lorentz

Visible lightEdit

CharacteristicsEdit

Visible light travels at a constant speed in vacuum and in air which has a value

  m/s

Travels as Electromagnetic wave of wavelength

  m

Of Threshold frequency

  Hz

Composite colorsEdit

Visible light passes through prism decomposes itself into its composites color light of 6 colors

Colors Wavelength Angle of refraction
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet

Light and matterEdit

Light and matter interacts with each other to create the following effects

  1. Reflection
  2. Refraction
  3. Diffraction
  4. Dispersion
  5. Interference

SoundEdit

Measurement speed of soundEdit

Material medium Value
In air  
In water  
In solid  

Audible soundEdit

Sound spectrumEdit

Audible sound to human's ears is in the frequency range 20Hz - 20KHz . Sound above 20KHz is called Ultrasound . Sound below 20Hz is called Infrasound

Audible sound wave in airEdit

In air, audible sound travels as wave of thick and thin columns of air

Medium Speed Frequency Wavelength
In air      

Sound and matterEdit

Sound and matter interacts with each other to create the following effects

  1. Relection
  2. Refraction
  3. Diffraction
  4. Interference

ElectricityEdit

Electricity and a straight line conductorEdit

 
Characteristis Symbols Formulas
Voltage    
Current    
Resistance    
Conductance    
Electromagnet's Field strength    
Resistance change    
 
Power generated    
Power loss    
Power transmitted    

ElectromagnetEdit

For a straight line conductor    
For a circular loop made from straight line conductor    
For a coil of N circular loops made from straight line conductor    

Electric OscillationEdit

Electric's Oscillation RLC series at equilibrium RLC series at resonance LC series at equilibrium LC series at resonance
       
Wave equation        
Wave function    
 
 
   
 
       
 
       
 
 
 

ElectromagnetismEdit

Electric current interacts with magnetic material to generate Magnetic field

Electromagnetic FieldEdit

Electromagnetic Field Definition symbol formula
Straight line conductor The magnetic field is made up of circular magnetic circles
rotate counterclockwise or clockwise direction
   
Circular loop conductor The magnetic field is made up of circular magnetic circle
around a point charge that moves around the circular loop
 
 
Coil of N circular loop conductor The magnetic field is made up of elliptic magnetic lines
running from North pole [N] to South pole [S]
With North pole [N] corresponds to positive polarity (+)
and South pole [S] corresponds to negative polarity (-)
 
 
 
 

Electromagnetic InductionEdit

For a Faraday's coil of N circular loops . The magnetic field is made up of elliptic magnetic lines running from North pole [N] to South pole [S]

Magnetic Potential Difference    
Induced Magnetic Voltage    

ElectromagnetizationEdit

Process of generating permanent electromagnet from a magnetic material placed in the turns of the magnetic coil

 
 

Maxwell's Electromagnetization Vector Equation

 
 
 
 

Electromagnetic Wave OscillationEdit

Electromagnetic Wave Vectore Equation  
 
 
 
 
Electromagnetic Wave Equation
 
 
Electromagnetic Wave Function
 
 
 
Electromagnetic Wave Radiation  
 
 

Electromagnetic wave radiationEdit

Electromagnetic wave radiation is generated from Electromagnetic wave propagates at speed of visible light

 
 
 

Electromagnetic Wave Radiation StatesEdit

Radiant PhotonEdit

Electromagnetic Wave Radiation of Radian Photon just like visible light perceive by human eyes

 
 
 
Non radiant photonEdit

Electromagnetic Wave Radiation of Non radiant photon that can free electron off matter's atom

 
 
 
Heinseinberg's Uncertainty PrincipleEdit
Photon can only exist in one state at a time
 
 

QuantizationEdit

Photon is energy of a quantity that process no mass known as Quanta travels at speed of light

 
 
 
Quanta's Wave-Particle DualityEdit

Quanta processes Wave-Particle Duality . Sometimes, behave like wave of wavelength λ . Sometimes, behave like particle of a momentum p

Wave like .  
Particle like .  

Quantum PhysicsEdit

RadiationEdit

Sun light radiation
Fire radiation
Black body radiation
Alpha radiation
Beta radiation
Gamma radiation

Electromagnetic radiationEdit

Radiation from electromagnetic oscillation wave

 
 
 
 
 
 

Electromagnetic radiation and matterEdit

Radiation interact with matter to create Heat transfer of three phases Heat conduction, Heat convection and Heat radiation

Heat conduction Matter absorbs photon's energy and release heat into the surrounding

 
 


Heat convection Matter absorbs photon's energy to the mazximum at Threshold frequency fo and release visible light into the surrounding

 
 


Heat radiation Matter's atom releases its electron into the surrounding at frequency greater than threshold frequency fo

 
 

PhotonEdit

Photon's characteristicsEdit

Photon is defined as energy of a Quanta travels at speed of visible light

 
 
 
 
 
 

Photon's statesEdit

Photon exists in 2 states .

Radiant photon at   carries quantum energy of energy of visible light  
Non radiant photon at   carries quantum energy greater than energy of visible light   with f > fo

Photon cannot exist in 2 states at the same time . The chances of finding photon at any one state is one half . This is the uncertainty principle proposed by schroduinger which can be expressed mathematicaaly as

 

Photon's radiation spectrumEdit

Photon has a spectrumand are found in the frequenct bands below

VF
UVF
X
γ

QuantaEdit

Mathematical formulaEdit

 

Wave-Particle dualityEdit

Quanta processes Wave-Particle duality

Some time Quanta behaves as a particle of a momentum

 

Some other time Quanta behaves as a wave of wavelength

 

RelativityEdit

Relativistic mass in motionEdit

Symbol Mathematical formula
Speed    
Mass    
Moment    
Energy    

Massless quanta in motionEdit

Symbol Mathematical formula
Speed    
Energy    
Quanta    
Moment    
Wave length    

Mass changeEdit

At speed relative to speed of visible light

  .  

At speed equals to speed of visible light

  .  

Einstein's relativity theoryEdit

Newton's motion's speedEdit

When matter travels at any speed less than speed of visible light, matter does not change its mass
Speed of motion Mathematical formula of speed Mathematical formula of mass
At any speed less than speed of visible light    

Einstein's motion's speedEdit

When matter travels at a speed relative to or equal to the speed of visible light it is sometimes, erroneously said to change it's mass as space/time dilation changes the observable force needed to accelerate it under Newton's 2nd Law [F=ma]. The rest mass, usually designated m(subscript=0) remains the same.
Speed of motion Mathematical formula of speed Mathematical formula of mass
At speed relative to speed of visible light    
At speed equals to speed of visible light